5Gnetworks are expanding even further around the world. Thisnext-generation wireless communication is partially enhanced by a newtechnology called mmWave.US airlines are particularly interested in this technology and it isalso an important part of their rollout in China and Japan.Eventually, mmWave technology has started to spread around the world.
Evolutionof 5G mmWave coverage
Theevolution of 5G has progressed smoothly since 3GPP standardized thefirst release, Release 15, in the middle of 2018. Release 16 wascompleted in early July 2020. Also, 3GPP 5G spanning Releases 15 and16 was endorsed as an ITU IMT-2020 5G standard in July 2020. Inaddition to sub 6GHz spectrum’s effective utilization, Releases 15and 16 also provide the core functionalities for supporting mmWavetechnology.
Previously,the use of frequency bands well above 6 GHz has been consideredunsuitable for mobile communications due to high propagation loss andthe ease with which signals are blocked by the human body as well asbuilding materials and leaves. While these challenges limit mmWavedeployment, new antenna technology allows us to explore differentdeployment scenarios and better understand channel characteristicsand signal propagation.
Characteristicsof 5G mmWave
Beloware the characteristics of 5GmmWave technology.
|Datarate||10Gbps or higher.|
|Bandwidths||10subcarriers of 100 MHz each will be able to provide 1GHz bandwidthdue to carrier aggregation sub 40 GHz frequency.500MHz to 2 GHz bandwidth can be achieved without carrieraggregation.|
|FrequencyBands||Thebands are split into “less than 40 GHz” and “40GHzto 100 GHz” frequency ranges.|
|Modulationtypes||CP-OFDMA< 40GHzSC> 40GHz|
|Distancecoverage||2meters (indoor) to 300 meters (outdoor).|
|MIMOtype||MassiveMIMO is supported. Antennas are small; hence, approximately 16antenna arrays will be available in 1 square inch.|
Benefitsof 5G mmWave
Beloware the advantages of 5GmmWaves.These benefits make mmWave 5G one of the strongest candidates forfuture mobile wireless communications domains.
- Providesmore bandwidth to accommodate more subscribers.
- Thenarrow bandwidth in the millimeter range makes it suitable for usewith small cells.
- Coverageis not limited to the line of sight because the primary scatter pathis feasible.
- Thechannel probing feature is used to consider different types ofmmWave frequency loss in order for 5G networks to work well. Channelprobing is the measurement or estimation of channel characteristicsthat helps you successfully design, develop, and deploy a 5G networkwith the required quality requirements.
- Manyantennas are packaged in smaller sizes due to the physically smallersize of their antennas.
- The5G mmWave network supports multi-Gigabit backhaul up to 400 metersand cellular access up to 200-300 meters.
5GmmWave: Facts and fiction you should definitely know
- mmWavedoesn’t penetrate walls – High frequency 5G signals cannot travelfar, and the transition from indoors to outdoors doesn’t work verywell. However, large-scale MIMO and beamforming do not require astrict line of sight to take advantage of millimeterwaves.Millimeter-wave signals may not penetrate deep into the building butbounce around the building to ensure a proper signal.
- 5Gwon’t work in rains – When it rains, the millimeter-wave signalstrength drops slightly, first at a slightly slower speed, and thenconnection problems can occur. How bad it gets depends on how hardit rains and other factors, such as the distance from the celltower. Rain causes most problems when connecting at the edge of amillimeter-wave base station range.
Applicationsfor 5G mmWave
Fastand reliable broadband has become very important since the outbreakof the COVID-19 pandemic, when so many people work from home. Fixedwireless access (FWA) delivered over 4G or 5G is a cost-effectivebroadband alternative in areas where fixed line services such asdigital subscriber line (DSL), cable, and fiber are limitedlyavailable. Most of the FWA networks currently deployed operate atfrequencies below 6 GHz. 5G millimeter-wave technology uses FWA towirelessly provide gigabit speeds, eliminating the need for fiberoptics. Given the large amount of spectrum available, addingmillimeter-wave carriers to existing FWA networks increases networkcapacity and provides the excellent end-user experience needed forhigh-quality video streaming and more.
Usecases for 5G mmWave
- Fixedwireless internet access: 5GmmWavegigabit data rates can completely replace a variety of Internetaccess technologies with hybrid fiber and wireless networks thatconnect subscribers.
- Outdoorsmall cell for urban/suburban environment: A promising deploymentscenario for 5G mmWaves is to increase capacity in demanding publicspaces and venues.
- Mission-criticalcontrol application: Self-driving cars, vehicle-to-vehiclecommunications, and drone communications provide similar deploymentscenarios for 5G mmWave with less than 1-millisecond predictivenetwork delays.
- Indoorhotspot cells: Offices, shopping malls, and other indoor areasrequire high-density 5G mmWave microcells. These small cells cansupport download speeds up to 20 Gbps, providing seamless access tocloud data and the ability to support multiple applications andvarious forms of entertainment and multimedia.
- Internetof Things: Potentially, it covers smart home applications, security,energy management, logistics and tracking, healthcare, etc.
1. What is5G mmWave technology?
5GmmWave is an innovative cellular technology that provides access tothe large bandwidth and capacity available in the frequency bandabove 24GHz. Thought to be impossible by skeptics, 5G millimeterwavesare now being used in wireless ecosystems and continue to gainmomentum worldwide. For example, in the United States, all majorcarriers offer the full range of the latest and best-selling 5Gflagship millimeter-wave phones and 5G millimeter-wave services. InEurope, nearly half of the European Union and UK countries haveassigned or plan to allocate millimeter-wave spectra to 5G.
2. What is the benefit of5G mmWave technology?
The5G mmWave offers the most economical way to enable nationwide 5Gcoverage. Low bandwidth also helps other Time Division Duplex (TDD)bands improve coverage through carrier aggregation. It combineshigher system capacity capabilities with Massive MIMO (multipleinputs, multiple outputs), good coverage, and is already globallyavailable for easy scaling. High bandwidth above 24 GHz providesservice providers with the greatest opportunity to offerunprecedented peak rates, low latency, and high capacity. 5Ghigh-bandwidth or mmWave spectra are a valuable resource for sportsarenas, dense urban areas with numerous mobile devices, andmission-critical services.
3. What is the difference between 5G and5G mmWave?
Witha mobile that supports both mmWave and sub 6GHz 5G, you can takeadvantage of very fast 5G speeds when mmWave technology is available,but the traditional 5G coverage is similar to modern LTE networks.Below 6GHz, you can use the most popular 5G networks, but they areblocked by the faster millimeter waves that may be available in thecity. Sub 6GHz 5G is more rapid than 4G. However, it doesn’t offerthe ultra-fast speeds you get with mmWaves. Carriers are much cheaperto implement as they have a longer range and a better ability topenetrate objects.
4. Why is 5G calledmmWave?
Thehigh-frequency band in the spectrum above 24 GHz has the potential tosupport wide bandwidth and high data rates, making it ideal forincreasing the capacity of wireless networks. These high-frequencybands are often referred to as “millimeter waves” becauseof the short wavelengths that can be measured in millimeters. Themillimeter wave band extends to 300 GHz, but 5G is expected to usethe 24 GHz to 100 GHz band. Millimeter-wave bands up to 100GHz cansupport bandwidths up to 2GHz without combining bands to improve datathroughput.
5. What is the distinguishingfeature of mmWave 5G?
The5G high band (millimeterwave,also known as FR2) ranges from 24 GHz to 40 GHz. They provide a largeamount of spectrum and capacitance at the shortest distance. It alsouses Massive MIMO to increase capacity and increase coverage. Inaddition, it includes wide spectrum segments and low latencyavailable in 5G. The introduction of the new 5G frequency band willbe combined with the existing band currently used by serviceproviders. The combined effect of mixing low, medium, and highbandwidth is important to improve capacity and coverage.
6. What is the range of5G mmWave?
Millimeterwaves(high band 5G) are frequencies above 24 GHz. The higher the frequencyof the radio waves, the shorter the length of each wave. Due to thehigh frequency of millimeter waves, the range is limited to 300-500feet, making it difficult to penetrate buildings. In contrast, 3G and4G networks can move further and penetrate better into buildingmaterials. Until recently, millimeter waves were used only insatellite and radar systems and were typically operated in themilitary and aerospace industries. However, as data consumptionexploded, the industry recognized the need to use mmWaves innext-generation cellular networks.
What do you need to know about 5G technology? ›
5G wireless technology is meant to deliver higher multi-Gbps peak data speeds, ultra low latency, more reliability, massive network capacity, increased availability, and a more uniform user experience to more users. Higher performance and improved efficiency empower new user experiences and connects new industries.What is 5G mmWave technology? ›
It is the use of frequency bands in the 24 GHz to 100 GHz range, known as millimeter wave (mmWave), that provide new challenges and benefits for 5G networks. The main focus of this technology brief is the emergence of mmWave wireless as part of the 5G revolution.What is a benefit of 5G mmWave technology TQ answer? ›
High network speed is the main benefit of 5G mmWave technology. The fundamental reasons for this high speed are: High bandwidth - To transmit enormous amounts of data, a wider bandwidth is required. 5G mmWave technology provides wider bandwidth and is perfect for large data transmission networks.What are the three important factors to consider in 5G? ›
In reality it comes down to three important factors, your Mobile Network Operator (MNO), your location and your device.How does 5G work for dummies? ›
How Does 5G Work? Wireless communications systems use radio frequencies (also known as spectrum) to carry information through the air. 5G operates in the same way, but uses higher radio frequencies that are less cluttered. This allows for it to carry more information at a much faster rate.What are the two main components for 5G to work? ›
The 5G core network, which enables the advanced functionality of 5G networks, is one of three primary components of the 5G System, also known as 5GS (source). The other two components are 5G Access network (5G-AN) and User Equipment (UE).What is the advantage of mmWave? ›
Millimeter waves enable large bandwidth with high speed data rates upto 10Gbps. Large bandwidth, small components sizes, low interference and increased security are the pros of mmWaves.How important is mmWave 5G? ›
mmWave spectrum is essential for the deployment of high-capacity, low-latency 5G networks. It complements low and mid-band spectrum implementations in dense urban areas and provides fibre-like connectivity through 5G fixed wireless access (FWA) technologies.What are the disadvantages of 5G mmWave? ›
Disadvantages of 5G mm wave
Millimeter wave goes through different losses such as penetration, rain attenuation etc. This limits distance coverage requirement of mm wave in 5G based cellular mobile deployment. Moreover path loss at mm is proportional to square of the frequency.
mmWave spectrum bands are being explicitly opened up to enable provision of 5G services. The 24.25–29.5 GHz range covering the overlapping bands n257 (26.5–29.5 GHz), n258 (24.25–27.5 GHz) and n261 (27.5–28.35 GHz) has been the most-licensed/deployed 5G mmWave spectrum range to date.
What are the most important advantages of 5G wireless technologies? ›
The main advantages of the 5G are a greater speed in the transmissions, a lower latency and therefore greater capacity of remote execution, a greater number of connected devices and the possibility of implementing virtual networks (network slicing), providing more adjusted connectivity to concrete needs.What is the biggest challenge in 5G? ›
- 5G network development. Some of the infrastructure needed for 5G is already in place, such as macrocells, those oversized towers and masts already in use as telecommunications infrastructure. ...
- Costs. ...
- 5G issues with backhaul. ...
- Wave spectrum. ...
- 5G security concerns.
- 5G is a unified platform and more capable than 4G.
- 5G uses spectrum better than 4G.
- 5G is faster than 4G.
- 5G has more capacity than 4G.
- 5G has lower latency than 4G.
5G for your home Wi-Fi
If 5G Home is available at your location, it could replace your current home internet connection. Its ultra-powerful performance means that everyone in your household can use their devices, all at the same time.
Go to Settings > Cellular > Cellular Data Options or Settings > Mobile Data > Mobile Data Options. If you see this screen, your device has 5G activated. If you don't see this screen, contact your carrier to confirm that your plan supports 5G.Is 5G a phone or Wi-Fi? ›
5G is a designation for the fifth generation of mobile and wireless network communications, utilizing decentralized connectivity potential across various devices. 5G will predominantly serve mobile phones, tablets, and IoT devices. The “G” in 5G refers to the “generation” of mobile network capability.What are 5 technologies that enable 5G? ›
The key enabling technologies used in 5G networks include Device-to-device (D2D) communication, Machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, Millimetre Wave, Quality of Service (QoS), Network Function Virtualization (NFV), Vehicle-to-everything (V2X), Full-Duplex and Green Communication.What makes 5G faster? ›
You can get faster speeds on 5G because 5G networks use higher-frequency radio bands to deliver signals. Some of these bands previously had very little commercial use, so they have larger capacities to carry data over the airwaves.Where is mmWave used? ›
Millimeter-wave (mmW) frequencies (30–300 GHz) are being used for many applications in the modern world. These applications include,but not are limited to, radio astronomy, remote sensing, automotive radars, military applications, imaging, security screening, and telecommunications.How is 5G better than WIFI? ›
5G offers the combined merits of the mid-band and low-band for good coverage, and highband in mmWave for extreme capacity, low predictive latency, and highly accurate positioning. Wi-Fi 6 is limited to the mid-band and finite bandwidth per access point or device.
How does 5G replace WIFI? ›
In both public and private varieties, 5G has the potential to redraw the LPV space and reduce the reliance on fragile Wi-Fi designs. 5G's control protocols and ability to accommodate an order of magnitude more clients per cell make it a potentially exciting choice in the LPV space.What countries banned 5G? ›
The United States, Australia, and New Zealand have effectively banned the technology from China's IT companies Huawei and ZTE from their 5G roll-out. The heated German debate over 5G is approaching fever pitch.What is a limitation of 5G mmWave? ›
Millimeter waves — often referred to as mmWaves or high-band 5G — are frequencies starting at 24 GHz and beyond. As radio waves increase in frequency, each wave narrows in length. Because of its high frequencies, mmWave has a limited range of only 300 to 500 feet and struggles to penetrate buildings.Why is 5G easily blocked? ›
They can be easily blocked or diffused by physical object (buildings or atmospheric and environmental events) and will have a smaller footprint compared to other waves (2, 3 and 4G). Also, there might be problems with moving receivers/transmitters. The greater disruption will occur at the higher frequencies.