Secret Societies and Subversive Movements by Nesta Webster (2023)

1. Moniteur for the 14th Fructidor, An II.

2. Seth Payson, Proofs of the Real Existence and Dangerous Tendency ofIlluminism (Charleston, 1802), pp. 5-7.

3. Ibid., p. 5 note.

4. Quoted in the Life of John Robison (1739-1805) by George Stronach inthe Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. XLIX. p. 58.

5. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. VII, pp. 538,539 (1815).

6. Freemasonry, its Pretensions Exposed ... by a Master Mason, p. 275(New York. 1828).

7. Mémoires sur le Jacobinisme, II. 195 (1818 edition).

8. Barruel, op. cit., II. 208.

9. Ibid., II. 311.

10. I use the word "anti-Semitism" here in the sense in which it hascome to be used--that is to say, anti-Jewry, but place it in invertedcommas because it is in reality a misnomer coined by the Jews in orderto create a false impression. The word anti-Semite literally signifies aperson who adopts a hostile attitude towards all the descendants ofShem--the Arabs, and the entire twelve tribes of Israel. To apply theterm to a person who is merely antagonistic to that fraction of theSemitic race known as the Jews is therefore absurd, and leads to theridiculous situation that one may be described as "anti-Semitic andpro-Arabian." This expression actually occurred in The New Palestine(New York), March 23, 1923. One might as well speak of being"anti-British and pro-English."

11. Augustus le Plongeon, Sacred Mysteries among the Mayas and theQuiches, p. 53 (1909)

12. Ibid., pp. 56, 58.

13. Adolf Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, p. 45 (1894).

14. J.H. Breasted, Ancient Times: a History of the Early World, p. 92(1916).

15. This word is spelt variously by different writers thus: Cabala,Cabbala, Kabbala, Kabbalah, Kabalah. I adopt the first spelling as beingthe one employed in the Jewish Encyclopædia.

16. Fabre d'Olivet, La Langue Hébraïque, p. 28 (1815).

17. "According to the Jewish view God had given Moses on Mount Sinaialike the oral and the written Law, that is, the Law with all itsinterpretations and applications."--Alfred Edersheim, The Life andTimes of Jesus the Messiah, I. 99 (1883), quoting other Jewishauthorities.

18. Solomon Maimon: an Autobiography, translated from the German byJ. Clark Murray, p. 28 (1888). The original appeared in 1792.

19. Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, II.689 (1883).

20. "There exists in Jewish literature no book more difficult tounderstand than the Sepher Yetzirah."--Phineas Mordell in the JewishQuarterly Review, New Series, Vol. II. p. 557.

21. Paul Vulliaud, La Kabbale Juive: histotre et doctrine, 2 vols.(Émile Nourry, 62 Rue des Écoles, Paris, 1923). This book, neither thework of a Jew nor of an "anti-Semite," but of a perfectly impartialstudent, is invaluable for a study of the Cabala rather as a vastcompendium of opinions than as an expression of original thought.

22. "Rab Hanina and Rab Oschaya were seated on the eve of every Sabbathstudying the Sepher Ietsirah; they created a three-year-old heifer andate it."--Talmud treatise Sanhedrim, folio 65.

23. Koran, Sura LXXXVII. 10.

24. Zohar, section Bereschith, folio 55, and section Lekh-Lekha, folio76 (De Pauly's translation, Vol. I. pp. 431, 446).

25. Adolphe Franck, La Kabbale, p. 39; J. P. Stehelin, TheTraditions of the Jews, I. 145 (1748).

26. Adolphe Franck, op. cit., p. 68, quoting Talmud treatise Sabbath,folio 34, Dr. Christian Ginsburg, The Kabbalah, p. 85; Drach, Del'Harmonie entre l'Église et la Synagogue, I. 457.

27. Adolphe Franck, op. cit., p. 69.

28. Dr. Christian Ginsburg (1920), The Kabbalah, pp. 172, 173.

29. Vulliaud, op. cit., I. 253.

30. Ibid., p. 20, quoting Theodore Reinach, Historie des Israelites,p. 221, and Salomon Reinach, Orpheus, p. 299.

31. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Cabala.

32. Adolphe Franck, op. cit., p. 288.

33. Vulliaud, op. cit., I. 256, quoting Greenstone, The Messiah Idea,p. 229.

34. H. Loewe, in an article on the Kabbala in Hastings' Encyclopædiaof Religion and Ethics, says: "This secret mysticism was no lategrowth. Difficult though it is to prove the date and origin of thissystem of philosophy and the influences and causes which produced it, wecan be fairly certain that its roots stretch back very far and that themediæval and Geonic Kabbala was the culmination and not the inception ofJewish esoteric mysticism. From the time of Graetz it has been thefashion to decry the Kabbala and to regard it as a later incrustation,as something of which Judaism had reason to be ashamed." The writer goeson to express the opinion that "the recent tendency requires adjustment.The Kabbala, though later in form than is claimed by its adherents, isfar older in material than is allowed by its detractors."

35. Vulliaud, op. cit., I. 22.

36. Ibid., I. 13, 14, quoting Edersheim, La Société Juive an temps deJésus-Christ (French translation), pp. 363-4

37. See chapters on this question by Gougenot des Mousseaux in LeJuif, le Judaïsme et la Judaïsation des Peisples Chrétiens, pp. 499 andfollowing (2nd edition, 1886). The first edition of this book, publishedin 1869, is said to have been bought up and destroyed by the Jews, andthe author died a sudden death before the second edition could bepublished.

38. Eliphas Lévi, Histoire de la Magie, pp. 46, 105. (Eliphas Léviwas the pseudonym of the celebrated nineteenth-century occultist theAbbé Constant.)

39. Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 323.

40. Ginsburg op. cit. p. 105; Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Cabala.

41. Gougenot des Mousseaux, Le Juif, le Judaïsms el la Judaïsation desPeuples Chrétiens, p. 503 (1886).

42. P. L. B. Drach De l'Harmonie entre l'Église et la Synagogue, Vol.I. p. xiii (1844). M. Vulliaud (op. cit., II. 245) points out that, asfar as he can discover Drach's work has never met with any refutationfrom the Jews, by whom it was received in complete silence. The JewishEncyclopædia has an article on Drach in which it says he was brought upin a Talmudic school and afterwards became converted to Christianity,but makes no attempt to challenge his statements.

43. Drach, op. cit., Vol. II. p. xix

44. Franck, op. cit., p. 127.

45. De Pauly's translation. Vol. V. pp. 336-8, 343-6.

46. Zohar, treatise Beschalah, folio 59b (De Pauly, III. 265).

47. Zohar, Toldoth Noah, folio 69a (De Pauly, I. 408).

48. Zohar, treatise Beschalah, folio 48a (De Pauly, III. 219).

49. Ibid., folio 44a (De Pauly, III. 200).

50. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Cabala.

51. Adolf Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, p. 32.

52. Zohar, treatise Toldoth Noah, folio 59b (De Pauly, I. 347).

53. Zohar, treatise Lekh-Lekha, folio 94a (De Pauly, I. 535).

54. Zohar, treatise Bereschith, folio 26a (De Pauly, I. 161).

55. The Emek ha Melek is the work of the Cabalist Napthali, adisciple of Luria.

56. Drach, De l'Harmonie entre l'Église et la Synagogue, I. 272.

57. Ibid., p. 273.

58. D'Herbelot, Bibliothèque Orientale (1778), article on Zerdascht.

59. Ibid., I. 18.

60. Rom. iii. 2.

61. Drach, De l'Harmonie entre l'Eglise et la Synagogue, II. 19.

62. Ibid., I. 280.

63. Vulliaud, op. cit., II. 255, 256.

64. Ibid., p. 257, quoting Karppe, Études sur les Origines du Zohar,p. 494.

65. Ibid., I. 13, 14. In Vol. II. p. 411, M. Vulliaud quotes IsaacMeyer's assertion that "the triad of the ancient Cabala is Kether, theFather; Binah, the Holy Spirit or the Mother; and Hochmah, the Word orthe Son." But in order to avoid the sequence of the Christian Trinitythis arrangement has been altered in the modern Cabala of Luria andMoses of Cordovero, etc.

66. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Cabala, p.478.

67. "...All that Israel hoped for, was national restoration andglory. Everything else was but means to these ends; the Messiah Himselfonly the grand instrument in attaining them. Thus viewed, the picturepresented would be of Israel's exaltation, rather than of the salvationof the world.... The Rabbinic ideal of the Messiah was not that of 'alight to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of His people Israel'--thesatisfaction of the wants of humanity, and the completion of Israel'smission--but quite different, even to contrariety."--Edersheim, TheLife and Times of Jesus the Messiah, I. 164 (1883).

68. Zohar, section Schemoth, folio 8; cf. ibid., folio 9b: "The periodwhen the King Messiah will declare war on the whole world." (De Pauly,III. 32, 36).

69. A blasphemous address entitled The God Man, given by TomAnderson, the founder of the Socialist Sunday Schools, on Glasgow Greento an audience of over 1,000 workers in 1922 and printed in pamphletform, was founded entirely on this theory.

70. J.G. Frazer, The Golden Bough, Part VI. "The Scapegoat," p. 412(1914 edition); E.R. Bevan endorses this view.

71. Histoire de la Magie, p. 69.

72. The Magi or Wise Men are generally believed to have come fromPersia; this would accord with the Zoroastrian prophecy quoted above.

73. Drach, op. cit., II. p. 32.

74. Ibid., II. p. xxiii.

75. Joseph Barclay, The Talmud, pp 38, 39; cf. Drach, op. cit., I 167

76. The Talmud, by Michael Rodkinson (alias Michael LevyRodkinssohn).

77. Le Talmud de Babylone (1900).

78. Le Zohar, translation in 8 vols by Jean de Pauly, published in 1909by Emile Lafuma-Giraud. Wherever possible in quoting the Talmud or theCabala I shall give a reference to one of the translations herementioned.

79. Jewish Encyclopædia, article Talmud.

80. Drach, op. cit., I. 168, 169. The text of this encyclical is givenby Drach in Hebrew and also in translation, thus: "This is why we enjoinyou, under pain of excommunication major, to print nothing in futureeditions, whether of the Mischna or of the Gemara, which relates whetherfor good or evil to the acts of Jesus the Nazarene, and to substituteinstead a circle like this O, which will warn the Rabbis andschoolmasters to teach the young these passages only viva voce. By meansof this precaution the savants amongst the Nazarenes will have nofurther pretext to attack us on this subject." Cf. Abbé Chiarini, LeTalmud de Babylone, p. 45 (1831).

81. On this point see Appendix I.

82. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on "Jesus."

83. Eliphas Lévi, La Science des Esprits, p. 40.

84. Origen, Contra Celsum.

85. S. Baring-Gould, The Counter-Gospels, p. 69 (1874).

86. Cf. Baring-Gould, op. cit., quoting Talmud, treatise Sabbath, folio104.

87. Ibid., p. 55, quoting Talmud, treatise Sanhedrim, folio 107, andSota, folio 47; Eliphas Lévi, La Science des Esprits, pp. 32, 33.

88. According to the Koran, it was the Jews who said, "'Verily we haveslain the Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, an apostle of God.' Yet theyslew him not, and they crucified him not, but they had only hislikeness.... No sure knowledge had they about him, but followed anopinion, and they did not really slay him, but God took him up toHimself."--Sura iv. 150. See also Sura iii. 40. The Rev. J.M. Rodwell,in his translation of the Koran, observes in a footnote to the latterpassage: "Muhammad probably believed that God took the dead body ofJesus to Heaven--for three hours, according to some--while the Jewscrucified a man who resembled him."

89. Sura iii. 30, 40.

90. Sura xxi. 90.

91. Sura iv. 150.

92. Sura ii. 89, 250; v. 100.

93. Sura v. 50.

94. In the masonic periodical Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Vol. XXIV, aFreemason (Bro. Sydney T. Klein) observes: "It is not generally knownthat one of the reasons why the Mohammedans removed their Kiblah fromJerusalem to Mecca was that they quarrelled with the Jews over JesusChrist, and the proof of this may still be seen in the Golden Gateleading into the sacred area of the Temple, which was bricked up by theMohammedans, and is bricked up to this day, because they declared thatnobody should enter through that portal until Jesus Christ comes tojudge the world, and this is stated in the Koran." I cannot trace thispassage in the Koran, but much the same idea is conveyed by the Rev.J.M. Rodwell, who in the note above quoted adds: "The Muhammadansbelieve that Jesus on His return to earth at the end of the world willslay the Antichrist, die, and be raised again. A vacant place isreserved for His body in the Prophet's tomb at Medina."

95. Graetz, Geschichte der Juden, III. 216-52.

96. The Essenes: their History and Doctrines, an essay by ChristianD. Ginsburg, LL.D. (Longmans, Green & Co., 1864).

97. Ibid., p. 24.

98. Edersheim (op. cit., I. 325) ably refutes both Graetz and Ginsburgon this point, and shows that "the teaching of Christianity was in adirection the opposite from that of Essenism." M. Vulliaud (op. cit., I.71) dismisses the Essene origin of Christianity as unworthy of seriousattention. "To maintain the Essenism of Jesus is a proof of frivolity orof invincible ignorance."

99. Luke xvii. 7-9.

100. Ginsburg, op. cit., pp. 15, 22, 55.

101. Ginsburg, op. cit., p. 12.

102. Fabre d'Olivet thinks this tradition had descended to the Essenesfrom Moses: "If it is true, as everything attests, that Moses left anoral law, it is amongst the Essenes that it was preserved. ThePharisees, who flattered themselves so highly on possessing it, only hadits outward forms (apparences), as Jesus reproaches them at everymoment. It is from these latter that the modern Jews descend, with theexception of a few real savants whose secret tradition goes back tothe Essenes."--La Langue Hebraïque, p. 27 (1815).

103. Matter, Histoire du Gnosticisme, I. 44 (1844).

104. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Cabala.

105. Matter, op. cit., II. 58.

106. Ragon, Maçonnerie Occulte, p. 78.

107. "The Cabala is anterior to the Gnosis, an opinion which Christianwriters little understand, but which the erudites of Judaism professwith a legitimate assurance."--Matter, op. cit.. Vol. I. p. 12.

108. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Cabala.

109. John Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 167; Matter, op. cit., II.365, quoting Irenæus.

110. Eliphas Lévi, Histoire de la Magie, p. 189.

111. Eliphas Lévi, op. cit., p. 218.

112. Dean Milman, History of the Jews (Everyman's Library edition),II. 491.

113. Matter, II. 171; E. de Faye, Gnostiques et Gnosticisme, p. 349(1913).

114. De Luchet, Essai sur la Secte des Illuminés, p. 6.

115. Manuel d'Histoire Ecclésiastique, par R. P. Albers, S.J., adaptépar René Hedde, O.P., p. 125 (1908); Matter, op. citt., II. 197.

116. Matter, op. cit., II. 188.

117. Matter, op. cit., II. 199, 215.

118. Eliphas Lévi, Histoire de la Magie, pp. 217, 218.

119. Matter, op. cit., II. 115, III. 14; S. Baring-Gould, The Lost andHostile Gospels (1874).

120. Matter, op. cit., II 364.

121. Ibid., p. 365.

122. Ibid., p. 369.

123. Some Notes on Various Gnostic Sects and their Possible Influenceon Freemasonry, by D. F. Ranking, republished from Ars QuatuorCoronatorum (Vol. XXIV, p. 202, 1911) in pamphlet form, p. 7.

124. Hastings, Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, article onManicheism.

125. Zohar, treatise Bereschith, folio 54 (De Pauly's translation, I.315).

126. The Yalkut Shimoni is a sixteenth-century compilation of HaggadicMidrashim.

127. Principal authorities consulted for this chapter: Joseph vonHammer, The History of the Assassins (Eng. trans., 1835); Silvestre deSacy, Exposé de le Religion des Druses (1838) and Mémoires sur laDynastie des Assassins in Mémoires de l'Institut Royal de France,Vol. IV. (1818); Hastings Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics; SyedAmeer Ali, The Spirit of Islam (1922); Dr. F. W. Bussell, ReligiousThought and Heresy in the Middle Ages (1918).

128. Reinhart Dozy, Spanish Islam (Eng. trans.), pp. 403-5.

129. Claudio Jannet, Les Précurseurs de la Franc-Moçonnerie, p. 58(1887).

130. The following account is given by de Sacy in connexion withAbdullah ibn Maymūn (op. cit., I. Ixxiv), and Dr. Bussell (ReligiousThought and Heresy in the Middle Ages, p. 353) includes it in hischapter on the Karmathites. Von Hammer, however, gives it as theprogramme of the Dar ul Hikmat, and this seems more probable since theinitiation consists of nine degrees and Abdullah's society of Batinis,into which Karmath had been initiated, included only seven. Yarker (TheArcane Schools, p. 185) says the two additional degrees were added bythe Dar ul Hikmat. It would appear then that de Sacy, in placing thisaccount before his description of the Karmathites, was anticipating. Thepoint is immaterial, the fact being that the same system was common toall these ramifications of Ismailis, and that of the Dar ul Hikmatvaried but little from that of Abdullah and Karmath.

131. Von Hammer, op. cit. (Eng. trans.), pp. 36, 37.

132. Von Hammer, The History of the Assassins, pp. 45, 46.

133. Dr. F. W. Bussell, Religious Thought and Heresy in the MiddleAges, p. 368.

134. Von Hammer, op. cit., p. 55.

135. Von Hammer, op. cit., pp. 83, 89.

136. Ibid., p. 164.

137. Développement des abus introduits dans la Franc-maçonnerie, p.56 (1780).

138. Jules Loiseleur, La doctrine secrète des Templiers, p. 89.

139. Dr. F W. Bussell, D.D., Religions Thought and Heresy in theMiddle Ages, pp. 796, 797 note.

140. G. Mollat, Les Popes d'Avignon, p. 233 (1912).

141. Michelet, Procès des Templiers, I. 2 (1841). This work largelyconsists of the publication in Latin of the Papal bulls and trials ofthe Templars before the Papal Commission in Paris contained in theoriginal document once preserved at Notre Dame. Michelet says thatanother copy was sent to the Pope and kept under the triple key of theVatican. Mr. E. J. Castle, K.C., however, says that he has enquired aboutthe whereabouts of this copy and it is no longer in the Vatican(Proceedings against the Templars in France and in England for Heresy,republished from Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Vol. XX. Part III. p. 1).

142. M. Raynouard, Monuments historiques relatifs à la condemnationdes Chevaliers du Temple et de l'abolition de leur Ordre, p. 17 (1813).

143. Michelet, op. cit. I. 2 (1841).

144. Michelet, Procès des Templiers, II. 333.

145. Ibid., pp. 295, 333.

146. Ibid., pp. 290, 299, 300.

147. "Dixit per juramentum suum quod ita est terribilis figure etaspectus quod videbatur sibi quod esset figura cujusdam demonis, dicendogallice d'un maufé, et quod quocienscumque videbat ipsum tantus timoreum invadebat, quod vix poterat illud respicere nisi cum maximo timoreet tremore."--Ibid., p. 364.

148. Ibid., pp. 284, 338. "Ipse minabatur sibi quod nisi faceret, ipseponereteum in carcere perpetuo."--Ibid., p. 307.

149. "Et fuit territus plus quam unquam fuit in vita sua: et statimunus eorum accepit eum per gutur, dicens quod oportebat quod hocfaceret, vel moreretur."--Ibid., p. 296.

150. Mollat, op. cit., p. 241.

151. Procès des Templiers, I. 3: Mr. E. J. Castle, op. cit. Part III.p. 3. (It should be noted that Mr. Castle's paper is strongly in favourof the Templars.)

152. Ibid., I. 4.

153. Procès des Templiers, I. 5.

154. Michelet in Preface to Vol. I. of Procès des Templiers.

155. Jules Loiseleur, La Doctrine Secrète des Templiers, p. 40(1872).

156. Ibid., p. 16.

157. Proceedings against the Templars in France and England forHeresy, by E. J. Castle, Part I. p. 16, quoting Rymer, Vol. III. p. 37

158. Ibid., Part II. p. 1.

159. Ibid., Part II. pp. 25-7.

160. Ibid., Part II. p. 30.

161. "Another witness of the Minor Friars told the Commissioners he hadheard from Brother Robert of Tukenham that a Templar had a son who sawthrough a partition that they asked one professing if he believed in theCrucified, showing him the figure, whom they killed upon his refusing todeny Him, but the boy, some time after, being asked if he wished to be aTemplar said no, because he had seen this thing done. Saying this, hewas killed by his father.... The twenty-third witness, a Knight, saidthat his uncle entered the Order healthy and joyfully, with his birdsand dogs, and the third day following he was dead, and he suspected itwas on account of the crimes he had heard of them, and that the cause ofhis death was he would not consent to the evil deeds perpetrated byother brethren."--Ibid., Part II. p. 13.

162. F. Funck-Brentano, Le Moyen Age, p. 396 (1922).

163. Ibid., p. 384.

164. F. Funck Brentano, op. cit., p. 396.

165. Ibid., p. 387.

166. Dean Milman, History of Latin Christianity, VII. 213.

167. E. J. Castle, op. cit., Part I. p. 22.

168. Thus even M. Mollat admits: "En tout cas leurs dépositions,défavorables à l'Ordre, l'impressionnèrent si vivement que, par unesérie de graves mesures, il abandonna une à une toutes sesoppositions."--Les Papes d'Avignon, p. 242.

169. F. Funck-Brentano, op. cit., p. 392.

170. E. J. Castle, Proceedings against the Templars, A.Q.C., Vol. XX.Part III, p. 3.

171. Even Raynouard, the apologist of the Templars (op. cit., p. 19),admits that, if less unjust and violent measures had been adopted, theinterest of the State and the safety of the throne might have justifiedthe abolition of the Order.

172. Funck-Brentano, op. cit., p. 386.

173. "The bourgeoisie, whenever it has conquered power, has destroyedall feudal, patriarchal, and idyllic relations. It has pitilessly tornasunder all the many-coloured feudal bonds which united men to their'natural superiors,' and has left no tie twixt man and man but nakedself-interest and callous cash payment."--The Communist Manifesto.

174. Eliphas Lévi, Histoire de la Magie, p. 273.

175. E. J. Castle, op. cit., A.Q.C., Vol. XX. Part I. p. 11.

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176. Ibid., Part II. p. 24.

177. Loiseleur, op. cit., pp. 20, 21.

178. Histoire de la Magie, p. 277.

179. Dr. F. W. Bussell, Religious Thought and Heresy in the MiddleAges, p. 803.

180. Les Sectes et Sociétés Secrètes, p. 85.

181. History of the Assassins, p. 80.

182. F. T. B. Clevel, Histoire Pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie, p.356 (1843).

183. Loiseleur, op. cit., p. 66

184. Ibid., p. 143.

185. Ibid., p. 141.

186. "Dixit sibi quod non crederet in eum, quia nichil erat, et quoderat quidam falsus propheta, et nichil valebat; immo crederet in DeumCeli superiorem, qui poterat salvare."--Michelet, Procès desTempliers, II. 404. Cf. ibid., p. 384: "Quidem falsus propheta est;credas solummodo in Deum Celi, et non in istum."

187. Loiseleur, op. cit., p. 37.

188. Raynouard, op. cit., p. 301.

189. Wilhelm Ferdinand Wilcke, Geschichte des Tempelherrenordens, II,302-12, (1827).

190. Eliphas Lévi, Histoire de la Magie, p. 273.

191. J.M. Ragon, Cours Philosophique et Interprétatif des Initiationsanciennes et modernes, édition sacrée à l'usage des Loges et des MaçonsSEULEMENT (5,842), p. 37. In a footnote on the same page Ragon, however,refers to John the Baptist in this connexion.

192. J. B. Fabré Palaprat, Recherches historiques sur les Templiers,p. 31 (1835).

193. Ibid., p. 37.

194. Eliphas Lévi, Histoire de la Magie, p. 277.

195. Eliphas Lévi, La Science des Esprits, pp. 26-9, 40, 41.

196. Raynouard, op. cit., p. 281.

197. Matter, Histoire du Gnosticisme, III. 330.

198. Eliphas Lévi, Histoire de la Magie, p. 275.

199. M. Grégoire, Histoire des Sectes religieuses. II. 407 (1828).

200. Matter, Histoire du Gnosticisme, III. 323.

201. Ibid., III. p. 120.

202. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Mandæans.

203. Grégoire, op. cit., IV. 241.

204. Jewish Encyclopædia, and Hastings' Encyclopædia of Religion andEthics, article on Mandæans.

205. Codex Nasaræus, Liber Adam appellatus, trans. from the Syriacinto Latin by Matth. Norberg (1815), Vol. I. 109: "Sed, Johanne haeætate Hierosolymæ nato, Jordanumque deinceps legente, et baptismumperagente, veniet Jeschu Messias, summisse se gerens, ut baptismoJohannis baptizetur, et Johannis per sapientiam sapiat. Pervertet verodoctrinam Johannis, et mutato Jordani baptismo, perversisque justitiædictis, iniquitatem et perfidiam per mundum disseminabit."

206. Article on the Codex Nasaræus by Silvestre de Sacy in theJournal des Savants for November 1819, p. 651; cf. passage in theZohar, section Bereschith, folio 55.

207. Matter, op. cit., III. 119, 120. De Sacy (op. cit., p. 654) alsoattributes the Codex Nasaræus to the eighth century.

208. Matter, op. cit., III. 118.

209. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Mandæans.

210. Loiseleur, op. cit., p. 52.

211. Ibid., p. 51; Matter, op. cit., III. 305.

212. Hastings' Encyclopædia, article on Bogomils.

213. The Sabbatic goat is clearly of Jewish origin. Thus the Zoharrelates that "Tradition teaches us that when the Israelites evoked evilspirits, these appeared to them under the form of he-goats and madeknown to them all that they wished to learn."--Section Ahre Moth, folio70a (de Pauly, V. 191).

214. Eliphas Lévi, Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie, II. 209.

215. Some Notes on various Gnostic Sects and their Possible Influenceon Free-masonry, by D.F. Ranking, reprinted from A.Q.C., Vol. XXIV.pp. 27, 28

216. "Their meetings were held in the most convenient spot, often onmountains or in valleys; the only essentials were a table, a whitecloth, and a copy of the Gospel of St. John, that is, their own versionof it."--Dr. Ranking, op. cit., p. 15 (A.Q.C., Vol. XXIV.). Cf.Gabriele Rossetti, The Anti-Papal Spirit, I. 230, where it is said"the sacred books, and especially that of St. John, were wrested by thissect into strange and perverted meanings."

217. Michelet, Histoire de France, III. 18, 19 (1879 edition).

218. Michelet, op. cit., p. 10. "L'élément sémitique, juif et arabe,était fort en Languedoc." Cf. A.E. Waite, The Secret Tradition inFreemasonry, I. 118: "The South of France was a centre from which wentforth much of the base occultism of Jewry as well as its theosophicaldreams."

219. Michelet, op. cit., p. 12.

220. Ibid., p. 15.

221. Graetz, History of the Jews, III. 517.

222. Thus Hastings' Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics omits allreference to Satanism before 1880 and observes: "The evidence of theexistence of either Satanists or Palladists consists entirely of thewritings of a group of men in Paris." It then proceeds to devote fivecolumns out of the six and a half which compose the article todescribing the works of two notorious romancers, Léo Taxil and Bataille.There is not a word of real information to be found here.

223. Précis of Eliphas Lévi's writings by Arthur E. Waite, TheMysteries of Magic, p. 215.

224. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Cabala.

225. Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie, II. 220 (1861). It is curiousto notice that Sir James Frazer, in his vast compendium on magic, TheGolden Bough, never once refers to any of the higher adepts--Jews,Rosicrucians, Satanists, etc., or to the Cabala as a source ofinspiration. The whole subject is treated as if the cult of magic werethe spontaneous outcome of primitive or peasant mentality.

226. Histoire de la Magie, p. 289.

227. Talmud, treatise Berakhoth, folio 6. The Talmud also givesdirections on the manner of guarding against occult powers and theonslaught of disease. The tract Pesachim declares that he who standsnaked before a candle is liable to be seized with epilepsy. The sametract also states that "a man should not go out alone on the nightfollowing the fourth day or on the night following the Sabbath, becausean evil spirit, called Agrath, the daughter of Ma'hlath, together withone hundred and eighty thousand other evil spirits, go forth into theworld and have the right to injure anyone they should chance to meet."

228. Talmud, treatise Hullin, folios 143, 144.

229. Hastings' Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, article on JewishMagic by M. Caster.

230. Margaret Alice Murray, The Witch Cult in Western Europe, andJules Garinet, Histoire de la Magie en France, p. 163 (1818).

231. Hastings' Encyclopædia, article on Jewish Magic by M. Gaster.See the Zohar, treatise Bereschith, folio 54b, where it is said thatall men are visited in their sleep by female devils. "These demons neverappear under any other form but that of human beings, but they have nohair on their heads.... In the same way as to men, male devils appear indreams to women, with whom they have intercourse."

232. The Rev. Moses Margoliouth, The History of the Jews in GreatBritain, I. 82. The same author relates further on (p. 304) that QueenElizabeth's Hebrew physician Rodrigo Lopez was accused of trying topoison her and died a victim of persecution.

233. The Rev. Moses Margoliouth, The History of the Jews in GreatBritain, I. 83.

234. Hastings' Encyclopædia, article on Teutonic Magic by F. Hälsig.

235. Talmud, tract Sabbath.

236. Hermann L. Strack, The Jews and Human Sacrifice, Eng. trans.,pp. 140, 141 (1900).

237. See pages 215 and 216 of The Mysteries of Magic, by A.E. Waite.

238. See also A.S. Turberville, Mediæval Heresy and the Inquisition,pp. 111-12 (1920), ending with the words: "The voluminous records of theholy tribunal, the learned treatises of its members, are the greatrepositories of the true and indisputable facts concerning theabominable heresies of sorcery and witchcraft."

239. Histoire de la Magie, p. 15.

240. The Mysteries of Magic, p. 221.

241. A.E. Waite, The Real History of the Rosicrucians, p. 293.

242. Histoire de la Magie, p. 266.

243. John Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 205.

244. Drach (De l'Harmonie entre l'Église et la Synagogue, II. p. 30)says that Pico della Mirandola paid a Jew 7,000 ducats for theCabalistic MSS. from which he drew his thesis.

245. Jewish Encyclopædia, articles on Cabala and Reuchlin.

246. Ibid., article on Cabala.

247. The following résumé is taken from the recent reprint of theFama and Confessio brought out by the "Societas Rosicruciana inAnglia," and printed by W. J. Parrett (Margate, 1923). The story, which,owing to the extraordinary confusion of the text, is difficult to resumeas a coherent narrative is given in the Fama; the dates are given inthe Confessio.

248. Incidentally Paracelsus was not born until 1493, that is to saynine years after Christian Rosenkreutz is supposed to have died.

249. Nachtrag von weitern Originalschriften des IlluminatenordensPart II p. 148 (Munich, 1787).

250. Mackey, Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 265.

251. Ibid., p. 150.

252. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Shabbethai Horowitz.

253. Mirabeau, Histoire de la Monarchie Prussienne, V. 76.

254. Lecouteulx de Canteleu, Les Sectes et Sociétés Secrètes, p. 97.

255. Eckert, La Franc-Maçonnerie dans sa véritable signification, II.48.

256. A. E. Waite, The Real History of the Rosicrucians, p. 216.

257. "Traicté des Athéistes, Déistes, Illuminez d'Espagne et NouveauxPrétendus Invisibles, dits de la Confrairie de la Croix-Rosaire, élevezdepuis quelques années dans le Christianisme," forming the second partof the "Histoire Générale de Progrès et Décadence de l'HéréieModerne--A la suite du Premier" de M. Florimond de Raemond,Conseiller du Roy, etc.

258. See G.M. Trevelyan, England under the Stuarts, pp. 32, 33, andJames Howell, Familiar Letters (edition of 1753), pp. 49, 435. JamesHolwell was clerk to the Privy Council of Charles I.

259. Th.-Louis Latour, Princesses, Dames el Adventurières du Règne deLouis XIV, p. 278 (Eugène Figutère, Paris, 1923).

260. Ibid., p. 297.

261. Ibid., p. 306.

262. Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, Vol. XXI. p. 129 (1785 edition);Biographie Michaud, article on Glaser.

263. This assertion finds confirmation in the EncyclopædiaBritannica, article on the Rosicrucians, which states: "In no sense aremodern Rosicrucians derived from the Fraternity of the seventeenthcentury."

264. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on the Cabala.

265. A Free Mason's Answer to the Suspected Author of a Pamphletentitled "Jachin and Boaz," or an Authentic Key to Freemasonry, p. 10(1762).

266. Quoted by R.F. Gould, History of Freemasonry, I. 5, 6.

267. Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man, p. 1 (1910).

268. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, XXXII. Part I. p. 47.

269. Preston's Illustrations of Masonry, pp. 143, 147, 153 (1804).

270. John Yarker, The Arcane Schools, pp. 269, 327, 329.

271. Published in the Essai sur la Secte des Illuminés by the Marquisde Luchet, p. 236 (1792 edition).

272. Brother Chalmers Paton, The Origin of Freemasonry: the 1717Theory Exploded, quoting ancient charges preserved in a MS. inpossession of the Lodge of Antiquity in London, written in the reign ofJames II, but "supposed to be really of much more ancient date."

273. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, XXV. p. 240, paper by J.E.S. Tuckett onDr. Rawlinson and the Masonic Entries in Elias Ashmole's Diary, withfacsimile of entry in Diary which is preserved in the Bodleian Library(Ashmole MS. 1136, fol. 19).

274. Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 383.

275. Preston's Illustrations of Masonry, p. 208 (1804).

276. The Origins of Freemasonry: the 1717 Theory Exploded.

277. The Rev. G. Oliver, The Historical Landmarks of Freemasonry, pp.55, 57, 62, 318 (1845).

278. Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man, p. 185 (1910).

279. Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man, p. 8 (1910).

280. Ibid., p. 7. The German Freemason Findel disagrees with both theRoman Collegia and the Egypt theory, and, like the Abbé Grandidier,indicates the Steinmetzen of the fifteenth century as the realprogenitors of the Order: "All attempts to trace the history ofFreemasonry farther back than the Middle Ages have been ... failures,and placing the origin of the Fraternity in the mysteries of Egypt ...must be rejected as a wild and untenable hypothesis."--History ofFreemasonry (Eng. trans.), p. 25.

281. Dr. Oliver and Dr. Mackey thus refer to true and spurious Masonry,the former descending from Noah, through Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob,and Moses to Solomon--hence the appellation of Noachites sometimesapplied to Freemasons--the latter from Cain and the Gymnosophists ofIndia to Egypt and Greece. They add that a union between the two tookplace at the time of the building of the Temple of Solomon through HiramAbiff, who was a member of both, being by birth a Jew and artificer ofTyre, and from this union Freemasonry descends. According to Mackey,therefore, Jewish Masonry is the true form.--A Lexicon of Freemasonry,pp. 323-5; Oliver's Historical Landmarks of Freemasonry, I. 60.

282. Rev. G. Oliver, The Historical Landmarks of Freemasonry, pp. 55,57 (1845).

283. The Jewish Encyclopaædia (article on Freemasonry) characterizesthe name Hiram Abifi as a misunderstanding of 2 Chron. ii. 13

284. Clavel, Histoire pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie, p. 340;Matter, Histoire du Gnosticisme, I. 145.

285. Quoted in A.Q.C., XXXII. Part I. p. 36.

286. Article on Freemasonry, giving reference to Pesik, R.V. 25a (ed.Friedmann).

287. Clavel, op. cit., 364, 365; Lecouteulx de Canteleu, Les Sectes etSociétés Secrétes, p. 120.

288. Clavel, op. cit., p. 82.

289. Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 257.

290. Ibid., p. 242.

291. "According to Prof. Marks and Prof. Hayter Lewis, the story ofHiram Abiff is at least as old as the fourteenth century."--J.E.S.Tuckett in The Origin of Additional Degrees, A.Q.C., XXXII. Part I. p.14. It should be noted that no Mason who took part in the discussionbrought evidence to show that it dated from before this period. Cf.Freemasonry Before the Existence of Grand Lodges (1923), by Wor. Bro.Lionel Vibert, I.C.S., p. 135, where it is suggested that the Hiramiclegend dates from an incident in one of the French building guilds in1401.

292. Yarker, op. cit., p. 348; Eckert, op. cit., II. 36.

293. Eckert, op. cit., II. 28.

294. "The Essenes, in common with other Syrian sects, possessed andadhered to the 'true principles' of Freemasonry."--Bernard H. Springett,Secret Sects of Syria and the Lebanon, p. 91.

295. "The esoteric doctrine of the Judeo-Christian mysteries evidentlypenetrated into the masonic guilds (ateliers) only with the entry of theTemplars after the destruction of their Order."--Eckert, op. cit., II.28.

296. La Comtesse de Rudolstadt, II. 185.

297. Ragon, Cours philosophique des Initiations, p. 34.

298. Mr. Sidney Klein in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, XXXII. Part I. pp.42, 43.

299. John Yarker, The Arcane Schools, pp. 195, 318, 341, 342, 361.

300. Ibid., p. 196.

301. Official history of the Order of Scotland quoted by Bro. Fred. H.Buckmaster in The Royal Order of Scotland, published at the offices ofThe Freemason, pp. 3, 5, 7; A.E. Waite, Encyclopædia of Freemasonry,II. 219; Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 330; Mackey, Lexicon ofFreemasonry, p. 267.

302. Baron Westerode in the Acta Latomorum (1784), quoted by Mackey,op. cit., p. 265. Mr. Bernard H. Springett also asserts that this degreeoriginated in the East (Secret Sects of Syria and the Lebanon, p.294).

303. Chevalier de Bérage, Les Plus Secrets Mystères des Hauts Gradesde la Maçonnerie dévoilés, ou le vrai Rose Croix (1768); Waite, TheSecret Tradition in Freemasonry, I. 3.

304. In 1784 some French Freemasons wrote to their English brethrensaying: "It concerns us to know if there really exists in the island ofMull, formerly Melrose ... in the North of Scotland, a Mount Heredom, orif it does not exist." In reply a leading Freemason, General Rainsford,referred them to the word [Hebrew: **] (Har Adonai), i.e. Mount of God(Notes on the Rainsford Papers in A.Q.C., XXVI. 99). A more probableexplanation appears, however, to be that Heredom is a corruption of theHebrew word "Harodim," signifying princes or rulers.

305. F.H. Buckmaster, The Royal Order of Scotland, p. 5. Lecouteulxde Canteleu says, however, that Kilwinning had been the greatmeeting-place of Masonry since 1150 (Les Sectes et Sociétés Secrètes,p. 104). Eckert, op. cit., II. 33.

306. Mackey, Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 267.

307. Clavel, op. cit., p. 90; Eckert, op. cit., II. 27.

308. A.E. Waite, The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry, I. 8.

309. "Our names of E.A., F.C., and M.M. were derived fromScotland."--A.Q.C., XXXII. Part I. p. 40. Clavel, however, says thatthese existed in the Roman Collegia (Histoire pittoresque, p. 82).

310. Religious Thought and Heresy in the Middle Ages, p. 372.

311. The Spirit of Islam, p. 337.

312. Secret Sects of Syria and the Lebanon, p. 181 (1922).

313. See, for example, Bouillet's Dictionnaire Universel d'Histoire etde Géographie (1860), article or Templars: "Les Francs-Maçonsprétendent se rattacher à cette secte."

314. Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 185.

315. Findel, Geschichte der Freimaurerei, II. 156, 157 (1892edition). Dr. Bussell (op. cit., p. 804), referring to Dupuy's work,also observes: "An editor of a later edition (Brussels, 1751)undoubtedly was a Freemason who tried to clear the indictment andaffiliate to the condemned Order the new and rapidly increasingbrotherhood of speculative deism."

316. The Royal Order of Scotland.

317. Manuel des Chevaliers de l'Ordre du Temple, p. 10 (1825edition).

318. Oration of Chevalier Ramsay (1737); Baron Tschoudy, L'ÉtoileFlamboyante, I. 20 (1766).

319. The description of the Vehmic Tribunals that follows here islargely taken from Lombard de Langres, Les Sociétés Secrètes enAllemagne (1819), quoting original documents preserved at Dortmund.

320. Clavel derides this early origin and says it was theFrancs-juges themselves who claimed Charlemagne as their founder(Histoire pittoresque, p. 357).

321. Lecouteulx de Canteleu, Les Sectes et Sociétés Secrètes, p. 100.

322. According to Walter Scott's account of the Vehmgerichts in Anneof Geierstein, the initiate was warned that the secrets confided to himwere "neither to be spoken aloud nor whispered, to be told in words orwritten in characters, to be carved or to be painted, or to be otherwisecommunicated, either directly or by parable and emblem." This formula,if accurate, would establish a further point of resemblance.

323. Lombard de Langres, Les Sociétés Secrètes en Allemagne, p. 341(1819); Lecouteulx de Canteleu, Les Sectes et Sociétès Secrètes, p.99.

324. A. le Plongeon, Sacred Mysteries among the Mayas and the Quichas(1886).

325. Findel, History of Freemasonry (Eng. trans., 1866), pp. 131,132.

326. John Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 216, 431.

327. Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 298.

328. Waite, The Real History of the Rosicrucians, p. 403.

329. Ibid., p. 283.

330. Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 430.

331. "Yarker pronounces Elias Ashmole to have been circa 1686 'theleading spirit, both in Craft Masonry and in Rosicrucianism,' and is ofopinion that his diary establishes the fact 'that both societies fellinto decay together in 1682.' He adds: 'It is evident therefore that theRosicrucians ... found the operative Guild conveniently ready to theirhand, and grafted upon it their own mysteries ... also, from this timeRosicrucianism disappears and Freemasonry springs into life with all thepossessions of the former.' "--Speculative Freemasonry, an HistoricalLecture, delivered March 31, 1883, p. 9; quoted by Gould, History ofFreemasonry, II. 138.

332. L'Antisémitisme, p. 339.

333. Jewish Encyclopædia, articles on Leon and Manasseh ben Israel.

334. Article on "Anglo-Jewish Coats-of-arms" by Lucien Wolf inTransactions of the Jewish Historical Society, Vol. II. p. 157.

335. Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England, Vol.II. p. 156. A picture of Templo forms the frontispiece of this volume,and a reproduction of the coat-of-arms of Grand Lodge is given oppositeto p. 156.

336. Zohar, section Jethro, folio 70b (de Pauly's trans., Vol. III.311).

337. The Cabalistic interpretation of the Mercaba will be found in theZohar, section Bereschith, folio 18b (de Pauly's trans., Vol. I. p.115).

338. "By figure of a man is always meant that of the male and femaletogether."--Ibid., p. 116.

339. Histoire de la Monarchie Prussienne, VI. 76.

340. Lecouteulx de Canteleu, op. cit., p. 105.

341. Ibid., p. 106; Lombard de Langres, Les Sociétés Secrètes enAllemagne, p. 67.

342. Monsignor George F. Dillon, The War of Anti-Christ with theChurch and Christian Civilization, p. 24 (1885).

343. Brother Chalmers I. Paton, The Origin of Freemasonry: the 1717Theory Exploded, p. 34.

344. Lecouteulx de Canteleu, op. cit., p. 107; Robison's Proofs of aConspiracy, p. 27; Dillon, op. cit, p. 24; Mackey, Lexicon ofFreemasonry, p. 148.

345. Preston's Illustrations of Masonry, p. 209 (1804); Anderson'sNew Book of Constitutions (1738).

346. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, XXV. p. 31. See account of some ofthese convivial masonic societies in this paper entitled "An ApollinaricSummons."

347. Religious Thought and Heresy in the Middle Ages, p. 373. A "PastGrand Master," in an article entitled "The Crisis in Freemasonry," inthe English Review for August 1922, takes the same view. "It is true... that the Craft Lodges in England were originally Hanoverian clubs,as the Scottish lodges were Jacobite clubs."

348. Dr. Anderson, a native of Aberdeen and at this period minister ofthe Presbyterian Church in Swallow Street, and Dr. Desaguliers, ofFrench Protestant descent, who had taken holy orders in England and inthis same year of 1717 lectured before George I, who rewarded him with abenefice in Norfolk (Dictionary of National Biography, articles onJames Anderson and John Theophilus Desaguliers).

349. The Free Mason's Vindication, being an answer to a scandalouslibel entitled (sic) The Grand Mystery of the Free Masons discover'd,etc. (Dublin, 1725). It is curious that this reply is to be found in theBritish Museum (Press mark 8145, h. I. 44), but not the book itself. YetMr. Waite thinks it sufficiently important to include in a "Chronologyof the Order," in his Encyclopædia of Freemasonry, I. 335.

350. Gentleman's Magazine for April 1737.

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351. Dates given in A.Q.C., XXXII. Part I. pp. 11, 12, and Deschamps,Les Sociétés Secrétes et la Société, III. 29. The writer of the paperin A.Q.C. appears not to recognize the authorship of the second workL'Ordre des Francs-Maçons trahi; but on p. xxix of this book thesignature of Abbé Pérau appears in the masonic cypher of the periodderived from the masonic word LUX. This cypher is, of course, now wellknown. It will be found on p. 73 of Clavel's Histoire pittoresque.

352. The British Museum possesses no earlier edition of this work thanthat of 1797, but the first edition must have appeared at leastthirty-five years earlier, as A Free Mason's Answer to the suspectedAuthor of ... Jachin and Boaz, of which a copy may be found in theBritish Museum (Press mark 112, d. 41), is dated 1762. This book bearson the title-page the following quotation from Shakespeare:

"Oh, that Heaven would put in every honest Hand a Whip to lash the Rascal naked through the World."

353. The author of Jachin and Boaz says in the 1797 edition that inreply to this work he has received "several anonymous Letters,containing the lowest Abuse and scurrilous Invectives; nay some haveproceeded so far as to threaten his Person. He requests the Favour ofall enraged Brethren, who shall chuse to display their Talents for thefuture, that they will be so kind as to pay the Postage of their Lettersfor there can be no Reason why he should put up with their ill Treatmentand pay the Piper into the Bargain. Surely there must be something inthis Book very extraordinary; a something they cannot digest, thus toexcite the Wrath and Ire of these hot-brained Mason-bit Gentry." Oneletter he has received calls him "a Scandalous Stinking Pow Catt (sic)."

354. A.Q.C., XXXII. Part I. p. 34.

355. Ibid.

356. Ibid., p. 15. Mackey also thinks that R.A. was introduced in 1740,but that before that date it formed part of the Master's degree(Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 299).

357. Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 437.

358. Review by Yarker of Mr. A. E. Waite's book The Secret Traditionin Freemasonry in The Equinox, Vol. I. No. 7, p. 414.

359. Encyclopædia of Freemasonry, II. 56.

360. A.Q.C., Vol. XXXII, Part I. p. 23.

361. Correspondence on Lord Derwentwater in Morning Post forSeptember 15, 1922. Mr. Waite (The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry, I.113) wrongly gives the name of Lord Derwentwater as John Radcliffe andin his Encyclopædia of Freemasonry as James Radcliffe. But James wasthe name of the third Earl, beheaded in 1716.

362. Gould, op. cit. III. 138. "The founders were all of themBritons."--A.Q.C., XXXII. Part I. p. 6.

363. "If we turn to our English engraved lists we find that whateverLodge (or Lodges) may have existed in Paris in 1725 must have beenunchartered, for the first French Lodge on our roll is on the list for1730-32.... It would appear probable ... that Derwentwater's Lodge ...was an informal Lodge and did not petition for a warrant till1732."--Gould, History of Freemasonry, III. 138.

364. John Yarker, The Arcane Schools, p. 462.

365. Gautier de Sibert, Histoire des Ordres Royaux,Hospitaliers-Militaires de Notre-Dame du Carmel et de Saint-Lazare deJérusalem, Vol. II. p. 193 (Paris, 1772).

366. This oration has been published several times and has beenvariously attributed to Ramsay and the Duc d'Antin. The author of apaper in A.Q.C., XXXII. Part I., says on p. 7: "Whether Ramsaydelivered his speech or not is doubtful, but it is certain that he wroteit. It was printed in an obscure and obscene Paris paper called theAlmanach des Cocus for 1741 and is there said to have been'pronounced' by 'Monsieur de R--Grand Orateur de l'Ordre.' It was againprinted in 1742 by Bro. De la Tierce in his Histoire, Obligations etStatuts, etc.,... and De la Tierce says that it was 'prononcé par leGrand Maître des Francs-Maçons de France' in the year 1740.... A. G.Jouast (Histoire du G.O., 1865) says the Oration was delivered at theInstallation of the Duc d'Antin as G.M. on 24th June, 1738, and the sameauthority states that it was first printed at the Hague in 1738, boundup with some poems attributed to Voltaire, and some licentious tales byPiron.... Bro. Gould remarks: 'If such a work really existed at thatdate, it was probably the original of the "Lettre philosophique par V---- , avec plusieurs piéces galantes," London, 1757.'" Mr. Gouldhas, however, provided very good evidence that Ramsay was the author ofthe oration by Daruty's discovery of the letter to Cardinal Fleury,which together with the oration itself (translated from De la Tierce'sversion) he reproduces in his History of Freemasonry, Vol. III. p. 84.

367. A.Q.C., XXII. Part I. p. 10.

368. Les plus secrets mystères des Hants Grades de la Maçonneriedévoilés, ou le vrai Rose-Croix. A Jerusalem. M.DCC.LXVII. (A.Q.C.,Vol. XXXII. Part I. p. 13, refers, however, to an edition of 1747).

369. As Godefroi de Bouillon died in 1100, I conclude his name to havebeen introduced here in error by de Bérage or the date of 1330 to havebeen a misprint.

370. Dr. Mackey confirms this assertion, Lexicon of Freemasonry, p.304.

371. Étoile Flamboyante, I. pp. 18-20.

372. The same theory that Freemasonry originated in Palestine as asystem of protection for the Christian faith is given almost verbatim inthe instructions to the candidate for initiation into the degree of"Prince of the Royal Secret" published in Monitor of Freemasonry(Chicago, 1860), where it is added that "the brethren assembled roundthe tomb of Hiram, is a representation of the disciples lamenting thedeath of Christ on the Cross." Weishaupt, founder of theeighteenth-century Illuminati, also showed--although in a spirit ofmockery--how easily the legend of Hiram could be interpreted in thismanner, and suggested that at the periods when the Christians werepersecuted they enveloped their doctrines in secrecy and symbolism."That was necessary in times and places where the Christians livedamongst the heathens, for example in the East at the time of theCrusades."--Nachtrag zur Originalschriften, Part II. p. 123.

373. Étoile Flamboyante, pp. 24-9.

374. Gould, History of Freemasonry, III. 92.

375. Mackey's Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 267.

376. Oliver's Landmarks of Freemasonry, II. 81, note 35.

377. Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 270.

378. Clavel, Histoire pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie, p. 166.

379. A.Q.C., XXXII. Part 1. p. 17.

380. The Royal Order of Scotland, by Bro. Fred. H. Buckmaster, p. 3

381. Histoire de la Vie et des Ouvrages de Messire François deSalignac de la Mothe-Fenélon, archevêque de Cambrai, pp. 105, 149(1727).

382. J.M. Ragon, Ordre Chapitral, Nouveau Grade de Rose-Croix, p. 35.

383. The identity of Lord Harnouester has remained a mystery. It hasbeen suggested that Harnouester is only a French attempt to spellDerwentwater, and therefore that the two Grand Masters referred to wereone and the same person.

384. In 1786 the seventh and eighth degrees were transposed, theeleventh became Sublime Knight Elect, the twentieth Grand Master of allSymbolic, the twenty-first Noachite or Prussian Knight, the twenty-thirdChief of the Tabernacle, the twenty-fourth Prince of the Tabernacle, thetwenty-fifth Knight of the Brazen Serpent. The thirteenth is now knownas the Royal Arch of Enoch and must not be confounded with the RoyalArch, which is the complement of the third degree. The fourteenth is nowthe Scotch Knight of Perfection, the fifteenth Knight of the Sword or ofthe East, and the twentieth is Venerable Grand Master.

385. History of Freemasonry, III. 93. Thory gives the date of theKadosch degree as 1743, which seems correct.

386. Zohar, section Bereschith, folio 18b.

387. A.Q.C., XXVI: "Templar Legends in Freemasonry."

388. "This degree is intimately connected with the ancient order of theKnights Templars, a history of whose destruction, by the united efiortsof Philip, King of France, and Pope Clement V, forms a part of theinstructions given to the candidate. The dress of the Knights is black,as an emblem of mourning for the extinction of the Knights Templars, andthe death of Jacques du Molay, their last Grand Master...."--Mackey,Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 172.

389. Mr. J.E.S. Tuckett, in the paper before mentioned, quotes theArticles of Union of 1813, in which it is said that "pure ancientMasonry consists of three degrees and no more," and goes on to observethat: "According to this view those other Degrees (which for conveniencemay be called Additional Degrees) are not real Masonry at all, but anextraneous and spontaneous growth springing up around the 'Craft'proper, later in date, and mostly foreign, i.e. non-British in origin,and the existence of any such degrees is by some writers condemned asa contamination of the 'pure Ancient Freemasonry' of ourforefathers."--A.Q.C., XXXII. Part I. p. 5.

390. J. J. Mounier, De l'Influence attribuée aux Philosophes, auxFrancs-Maçons et aux Illuminés sur la Révolution Française, p. 148(1822). See also letter from the Duke of Northumberland at Alnwick toGeneral Rainsford dated January 19, 1799, defending Barruel from thecharge of attacking Masonry and pointing out that he only indicated theupper degrees, A.Q.C., XXVI, p. 112.

391. Em. Rebold, Histoire des Trots Grandes Loges de Francs-Maçons enFrance, pp. 9, 10 (1864).

392. A.Q.C., XXXII. Part I. 21.

393. A.Q.C., XXXII. Part I. 22. It is curious that in this discussionby members of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge the influence of the Templars,which provides the only key to the situation, is almost entirelyignored.

394. Yarker, The Arcane Schools, pp. 479-82.

395. Mackey, Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 119.

396. Martines de Pasqually, par Papus, président du Suprême Conseilde l'Ordre Martiniste, p. 144 (1895). Papus is the pseudonym of Dr.Gérard Encausse.

397. Gould, History of Freemasonry, III. 241.

398. See the very important article on this question that appeared inThe National Review for February 1923, showing that Carlyle wasassisted gratuitously throughout his work by a German Jew named JosephNeuberg and was supplied with information and finally decorated by thePrussian Government.

399. Executed in 1746 as a partisan of the Stuarts.

400. Gould, op. cit., Vol. III. pp. 101, 110; A.Q.C., Vol. XXXII.Part I. p. 31.

401. A. E. Waite, The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry, I. 296, 370,415.

402. Clavel (Histoire pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie, p. 185)says it was afterwards discovered that "the Pretender, far from havingmade de Hundt a Templar, on the contrary was made a Templar by him." Butother authorities deny that Prince Charles Edward was initiated eveninto Freemasonry.

403. Lecouteulx de Canteleu, Les Sectes et Societes Secrètes, p. 242;Clavel, op. cit., p. 184.

404. Gould, op. cit., III. 100.

405. Ibid., III. 99, 103; Waite, Secret Tradition in Freemasonry, I.289: "The Rite of the Stricte Observance was the first masonic systemwhich claimed to derive its authority from Unknown Superiors,irresponsible themselves but claiming absolute jurisdiction andobedience without question."

406. Histoire de la Monarchie Prussienne, V. 61 (1788).

407. Les Sectes et Sociétés Secrètes, p. 246.

408. Gould, op. cit., III. 102. Waite (Encyclopædia of Freemasonry,II. 23) says Johnson was "in reality named Leucht, an Englishman by hisclaim--who did not know English and is believed to have been a Jew."

409. Mackey, op. cit., p. 331.

410. Gould, History of Freemasonry, III. 93; A.Q.C., XXXII. Part I.p. 24.

411. Lévitikon, p. 8 (1831); Fabré Palaprat, Recherches historiquessur les Templiers, p. 28 (1835)

412. M. Grégoire, Histoire des Sectes Religieuses, II. 401. Findelsays that very soon after Frederick's return home from Brunswick "alodge was secretly organized in the castle of Rheinsberg" (History ofFreemasonry, Eng. trans., p. 252). This lodge would appear then to havebeen a Templar, not a Masonic Lodge.

413. Oliver, Historical Landmarks in Freemasonry, II. 110

414. Findel, History of Freemasonry (Eng. trans.), p. 290.

415. On this point see inter alia Mackey, Lexicon of Freemasonry,pp. 91, 328. In England and in the Grand Orient of France most of theupper degrees have fallen into disuse, and this rite, known in Englandas the Ancient and Accepted Rite and in France as the Scottish Rite,consists of five degrees only in addition to the three Craft degrees(known as Blue Masonry), which form the basis of all masonic rites.These five degrees are the eighteenth Rose-Croix, the thirtieth KniqhtKadosch, and the thirty-first to the thirty-third. The EnglishFreemason, on being admitted to the upper degrees, therefore advances atone bound from the third degree of Master Mason to the eighteenth degreeof Rose-Croix, which thus forms the first of the upper degrees. Theintermediate degrees are, however, still worked in America.

416. Scottish Rite of Freemasonry: the Constitutions and Regulationsof 1762, by Albert Pike, Sovereign Grand Commander of the SupremeCouncil of the Thirty-third Degree for the Southern Jurisdiction of theUnited States, p. 138 (A.M. 5632).

417. RO. State Papers, Foreign, France, Vol. 243, Jan. 2 and Feb. 19,1752.

418. John Morley, Diderot and the Encyclopædists, Vol. I. pp. 123-47(1886).

419. Gould, op. cit., III. 87. Mr. Gould naïvely adds in a footnote tothis passage: "The proposed Dictionary is a curious crux--- is itpossible that the Royal Society may have formed some such idea?" Thebeginning already made in London was of course the Cyclopædia ofChambers, published in 1728, and Chambers, who in the following year wasmade a Fellow of the Royal Society, if not himself a Mason numbered manyprominent Masons amongst his friends, including the globe-maker Senex towhom he had been apprenticed and who published Anderson'sConstitutions in 1723. (See A.Q.C., XXXII. Part I. p. 18.)

420. Papus, Martines de Pasqually, p. 146 (1895).

421. Evidently a reference to the seven liberal arts and sciencesenumerated in the Fellow Craft's degree--Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic,Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, and Astronomy.

422. In 1767 Voltaire writes to Frederick asking him to have certainbooks printed in Berlin and circulated in Europe "at a low price whichwill facilitate the sales." To this Frederick replies: "You can make useof my printers according to your desires," etc. (letter of May 5, 1767).I have referred elsewhere to the libels against Marie Antoinettecirculated by Frederick's agents in France. See my French Revolution,pp. 27, 183.

423. Eliphas Lévi, Histoire de la Magie, p 407. The rôle ofFreemasonry in preparing the Revolution habitually denied by theconspiracy of history is nevertheless clearly recognized in masoniccircles--applauded by those of France, deplored by those of England andAmerica. An American manual in my possession contains the followingpassage: "The Masons ... (it is now well settled by history) originatedthe Revolution with the infamous Duke of Orleans at their head."--ARitual and Illustrations of Freemasonry, p. 31 note.

424. Papus, Martines de Pasqually, p. 150.

425. Benjamin Fabre, Eques a Capite Galeato, p. 88.

426. Souvenirs du Baron de Gleichen, p. 151.

427. Henri Martin, Histoire de France, XVI. 529.

428. Heckethorn, Secret Societies, I. 218; Waite, Secret Tradition,II. 155, 156.

429. "The ceremonial magic of Pasqually followed that type which Iconnect with the debased Kabbalism of Jewry."--A. E. Waite, The SecretTradition in Freemasonry, II. 175.

430. An eighteenth-century manuscript of Les vrais clavicules du roiSalomon, translated from the Hebrew, was sold in Paris in 1921.

431. Mackev, Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 156

432. A.E. Waite, The Doctrine and Literature of the Kabbalah, p. 369.Ragon elsewhere gives an account of the philosophical degree of theRose-Croix, in which the sacred formula I.N.R.I., which plays animportant part in the Christian form of this degree, is interpreted tomean Igne Natura Renovatur Integra--Nature is renewed by fire.--NovueauGrade de Rose Croix, p 69. Mackev gives this as an alternativeinterpretation of the Rosicrucians.--Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 150.

433. Ragon, Mafonnerie Occulte, p. 91.

434. Gustave Bord, La Franc-Maçonnerie en Francs, des Origines à1815, p. 212 (1908).

435. Letter from General Rainsford of October 1782, quoted inTransactions of the Jewish Historical Society, Vol. VIII. p. 125.

436. De Luchet (Essai sur la Sects des Illuminés, p. 212) refers tothe following works in connexion with the Order:

  1. Nouvelles authentiques des Chevaliers et Frères Initiés d'Asie.
  2. Reçoit-on, peut-on recevoir les Juifs parmi les Franc-Maçons?
  3. Nouvelles authentiques de l'Asie, by Frederick de Bascamp, nommé Lazapolski (1787).

Wolfstieg, in his Bibliograpkie der Freimaurischer Ltteratur, Vol. II.p. 283, gives Friedrich Münter as the author of the first of the above,and also mentions amongst others a work by Gustave Brabée, DieAsiatischen Brüder in Berlin und Wien. But none of these are to befound in the British Museum, nor is the book of Rolling (published in1787), which gives away the secrets of the sect.

437. Books in Wolfstieg's list refer to the Order as "the only true andgenuine Freemasonry" (die einzige wahre und echte Freimaurerei).

438. Clavel, Histoire pittoresque, etc., p. 167.

439. The Baron de Gleichen, in describing the "Convulsionists," saysthat young women allowed themselves to be crucified, sometimes headdownwards, at these meetings of the fanatics. He himself saw one nailedto the floor and her tongue cut with a razor. (Souvenirs da Baron deGleichen, p. 185.)

440. Barruel, Mémoires sur le Jacobinisme, IV. 263.

441. Franciscus, Eques a Capite Galeato, published by Benjamin Fabrewith preface by Copin Albancelli. A paper on this book appears in ArsQuatuor Coronatorum, Vol. XXX. Part II. The author, Mr. J. E. S.Tuckett, describes it as a book of extraordinary interest to Freemasons.Without sharing Mr. Tuckett's admiration for the members of the RitPrimitif, I agree with him that M. Fabre attributes to them too muchguile and fails to substantiate his charge of revolutionary designs.They appear to have been the perfectly honourable dupes of subtlerbrains. Incidentally Mr. Tuckett erroneously gives the real name of"Eques a Capite Galeato" as Chefdebien d'Armand; it should bed'Armisson.

442. De Luchet, Essai sur la Secte des Illuminés, p. 208. Gould, op.cit., III. 116.

443. It is amusing to note that Mr. Waite confuses him with therightful bearer of the name, Claude Louis, Comte de Saint-Germain,Minister of War under Louis XVI, for in The Secret Tradition inFreemasonry, Vol. II., a picture of the real Count is appended to adescription of the adventurer.

444. Biographic Michaud, article on Saint-Germain.

445. Souvenirs de la Marquise de Créquy, III. 65. Francois Bournand(Histoire de la Franc-Maçonnerie, p. 106) confirms this story: "Theman who called himself the Comte de Saint-Germain was in reality onlythe son of an Alsatian Jew named Wolf."

446. Nouvelle Biographie Générale, article on Saint-Germain.

447. Frederick Bülau, Geheime Geschichten und ràthselhafte Menschen,I. 311 (1850); Eckert, La Franc-Maçonnene dans sa véritablesignification, II. 80, quoting Lening's Encyclopédie desFranc-Mafons.

448. Lecouteulx de Canteleu, op. cit., pp. 171, 172.

449. Clavel, Histoire pittoresque, p. 175.

450. Ibid., p. 175.

451. Figuier, Histoire du Merveilleux, IV. 9-11 (1860).

452. Mounier, De l'influence attribuée, etc., p. 140.

453. Benjamin Fabre, Franciscus eques a Capite Galeato, p. 24.

454. De Luchet, Essai sur la Secte des Illuminés (1792 edition), p.234.

455. L'Antisémitisme, p. 335.

456. Ibid., p. 328.

457. Article by Mr. Lucien Wolf, "The First English Jew," inTransactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England, Vol. II. p.18. On this question see also the pamphlets by Mr. Lucien Wolf:Crypto-Jews under the Commonwealth (1894), Cromwell's JewishIntelligencers (1891), and Manasseh ben Israel's Mission to OliverCromwell (1901), also articles on Cromwell, Carvajal, and Manasseh benIsrael in the Jewish Encyclopædia.

458. Lucien Wolf, "The First English Jew," in Transactions of theJewish Historical Society of England, II. 20.

459. Tovey, Anglia Judaica, p. 275.

460. The Jewish Encyclopædia, in its article on Manasseh ben Israel,says: "He was full of cabalistic opinions, though he was careful not toexpound them in those of his works that were written in modern languagesand intended to be read by Gentiles." In its article on "Magic" theJewish Encyclopædia refers to the "Nishmat Hayyim," a work by Manassehben Israel which "is filled with superstition and magic" and adds that"many Christian scholars were deluded."

461. Tovey, Anglia Judaica, p. 259; Margoliouth, History of the Jewsin England, II. 3.

462. Mirabeau (Sur la Réforme politique des Juifs, 1787) thinks theymay not have been allowed to return unconditionally until 1664. It wascertainly at this date that they were formally granted free permissionto live in England and practice their religion (Margoliouth, op. cit.,II. 26).

463. Margohouth, op cit., II 43.

464. The Digger Movement in the Days of the Commonwealth, by Lewis H.Berens, pp. 36, 74, 76, 98, 141 (1906).

465. Claudio Jannet, Les Précurseurs de la Franc-Maçonnerie, p. 47(1187).

466. Harmsworth Encyclopædia, article on Jews.

467. Diary of Samuel Pepys, date of February 19, 1666

468. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Shabbethai Zebi B. Mordecai.

469. Henry Hart Milman, History of the Jews (Everyman's Library),Vol. II. p. 445.

470. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Ba'al Shem Tob.

471. Milman, op. cit, II. 446.

472. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Heilprin, Joel Ben Uri.

473. Heckethorn, Secret Societies, I. 87.

474. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Jacob Frank.

475. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Jacob Frank.

476. Ibid.

477. Milraan, op. cit., II. 447.

478. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Jacob Frank.

479. Ibid.

480. Ibid.: Heckethorn. Secret Societies, I. 87.

481. Milman, op. cit., II. 448. Cf. description of pomp displayed byanother member of the oppressed race named Fränkel, who appeared at aparade of Jewry at Prague in 1741 in a carriage drawn by six horses andsurrounded by footmen and horseguards.--Jewish Encyclopædia, articleon Fränkel, Simon Wolf.

482. Jewish Encyclopedia, article on Falk, of whom a good portrait byCopley is given. On Falk see also Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Vol. XXVI.Part I. pp. 98-105, and Vol. XXX. Part II; Transactions of the JewishHistorical Society, Vol. V. p. 148, article on "The Ba'al Shem ofLondon," by the Rev. Dr. H. Adler, Chief Rabbi, and Vol. VIII, "Notes onsome Contemporary References to Dr. Falk, the Ba'al Shem of London, inthe Rainsford MSS. at the British Museum," by Gordon P.G. Hills. Thefollowing pages are taken entirely from these sources.

483. Falk does not appear to have brought good fortune to the Goldsmidfamily, for Margoliouth in a passage which evidently relates to Falksays that, according to Jewish legend, the suicide of Abraham Goldsmidand his brother was attributed to the following cause: "A Ba'al Shem, anoperative Cabalist, in other words a thaumaturgos and prophet, used tolive with the father of the Goldsmids. On his death-bed he summoned thepatriarch Goldsmid, and delivered into his hands a box, which hestrictly enjoined should not be opened till a tertain period which theBa'al Shem specified, and in case of disobedience a torrent of fearfulcalamities would overwhelm the Goldsmids. The patriarch's curiosity wasnot aroused for some time; but in a few years after the Ba'al Shem'sdeath, Goldsmid, the aged, half sceptic, half curious, forced open thefatal box, and then the Goldsmids began to learn what it was todisbelieve the words of a Ba'al Shem."--Margoliouth, History of theJews, II. 144.

484. Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society, V. 162.

485. Benjamin Fabre, Eques a Capite Galeato, p. 84.

486. Benjamin Fabre, op cit., pp. 88, 90, 98, 110.

487. Clavel, Histoire pittoresque, pp. 188, 390; Robison's Proofs ofa Conspiracy, p. 77.

488. The Royal Masonic Cyclopædia describes both Nathan der Weiseand Ernst und Falk as prominent works on Masonry.

489. There is, however, the possibility that Lessing may have had inmind another Falk living at the same period; this was "John FrederickFalk, born at Hamburg of Jewish parents, reported to have been head of aCabalistic College in London and to have died about 1824" (Tranactionsof the Jewish Historical Society, VIII. 128). But in view of the partwhich the correspondence of Savalette de Langes shows the Ba'al Shem ofLondon to have played in the background of Freemasonry, it seems moreprobable that he was the Falk in question. At any rate, both were Jewsand Cabalists.

490. Who can this have been?

491. The Duchesse de Gontaut relates in her Mémoires that the Dued'Orléans was one day driving through the forest of Fontainebleau when aman, half clothed and with a demented air, sprang towards the carriage,grimacing horribly. The Duke's suite, taking him for a madman, wouldhave kept him at bay, but the Duke, at that moment awaking from sleep,unbuttoned his shirt and showed his assailant an iron ring suspendedround his neck. At this sight the man took to his heels and disappearedinto the wood. The mystery of this incident was never elucidated, andthe Duke, when questioned on the matter, would offer no explanation.Could this ring have been Falk's talisman?

492. Margoliouth, op. cit., II. 121-4. See also Life of Lord GeorgeGordon by Robert Watson (1795), pp. 71, 72.

493. Friedrich Biilau, Geheime Geschichten und räthselhafte Menschen,I. 325 (1850). The Public Advertiser, Aug. 22, 24, 1786.

494. Barruel, Vol. III. p. xi., quoting Gaultier.

495. Silvestre de Sacy, "Mémoires sur la Dynastie des Assassins," inMémoires de l'Institut Royal de France, Vol. IV. (1818).

496. History of Freemasonry, III. 121.

497. Mémoires sur le Jacobinisme (edition of 1819), Vol. III. p. 9.

498. Ibid., III. 55, 56.

499. Essat sur la Secte des llluminés, pp. 28-39.

500. "Our worst enemies the Jesuits."--Letter from Spartacus,Originalschriften, p. 306.

501. Figuier, Histoire de Merveilleux, IV. 77.

502. Originalschriften des Illuminatenordens, p. 230.

503. Ibid., p. 331.

504. In World Revolution I suggested a resemblance between the Jewishcalendar and that of the Illuminati. This was an error; the Jewishcalendar was adopted by the Scottish Rite, which, as we have seen,derived partly from Judaic sources.

505. Thus Zwack (alias Cato) writes: "We have not only hindered theenlistings of the Rose-Croix but rendered their very namecontemptible."--Originalschriften, p. 8.

506. Originalschriften, p. 363. The word Illuminism is alwaysrepresented by this symbol in the correspondence of the Illuminati.

507. Ibid., p. 202.

508. Ibid., p. 331.

509. A. E. Waite, "Freemasonry and the Jewish Peril," in The OccultReview for September 1920, p. 152.

510. Mémoires de Mirabeau écrats par lui-même, par son père, son oncleet son fils adoptif, et prècédés d'une étude sur Mirabeau par VictorHugo, Vol. III. p. 47 (1834).

511. I have expressly made use of M. Barthou's résumé instead of makingone of my own, lest I should be said to have made judicious selectionsin order to suit the purpose of showing the resemblance between thisMemoir and the passage from Mirabeau's other writings which follows. ButM. Barthou's impartiality cannot be impugned, for he appears to knownothing about the Illuminati or Mirabeau's connexion with them, andregards the Memoir in question as solely the outcome of Mirabeau's mindwhich had "ripened" since 1772.

512. F. Barthou, Mirabeau, p. 57.

513. In the Memoir drawn up by Mirabeau quoted above we find thispassage: "It must be a fundamental rule never to allow any prince toenter the association were he a god for virtue."--Mémoires deMirabeau, III. 60.

514. Histoire de la Monarchie Prussienne, V. 99.

515. Henry Martin, Histoire de France, XVI. 533.

516. Louis Blanc, Histoire de la Révolution Française, II. 84.

517. History of Freemasonry, III. 121.

518. Originalschriften, p. 258.

519. Ibid., p. 297.

520. Ibid., p. 285.

521. Ibid., p. 286.

522. Originalschriften, p. 300. It seems that when a Freemasonappeared likely to fall in with the scheme of Illuminism, he was soonallowed to know of the further system. Thus in the case of "Savioli""Cato" writes: "Now that he is a Mason I have put all about this ⊙before him, shown him what is unimportant and at this opportunity takenup the general plan of our ⊙, and as this pleased him I said that such athing really existed, whereat he gave me his word that he would enterit."--Originalschriften, p. 289.

523. Ibid., p. 303.

(Video) 8 Real Secret Societies

524. Ibid., p. 361.

525. Ibid., p. 363.

526. Ibid., p. 360.

527. Originalschriften, p. 200.

528. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, I. 67.

529. Ibid., p. 95.

530. Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 142. See also Oliver's HistoricalLandmarks of Freemasonry, I. 26, where the Illuminati are rightlyincluded amongst the enemies of Masonry. Nevertheless, both Mackey andOliver proceed to revile Barruel and Robison as enemies of Masonry, andin order to substantiate this accusation Oliver descends to the mostflagrant misquotation. For if we look up in the original the passages hequotes on page 382 from Robison and on page 573 from Barruel as evidenceof their calumnies on Masonry, we shall find that they referrespectively to the Rose-Croix Cabalists and the Illuminati and not tothe Freemasons at all! See Robison's Proofs of a Conspiracy, p. 93,and Barruel's Mémoires sur le Jacobinisme (1818 edition), II. 244.

531. Oeuvres Complètes de Voltaire (1818 edition). Vol. XLI. p. 153.

532. Ibid., pp. 165, 168.

533. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften. II. 54-57.

534. Ibid., p. 82.

535. Ibid., p. 59.

536. Ibid., p. 63.

537. Ibid., p. 65.

538. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, II. 67.

539. Ibid., pp. 80, 81.

540. Ibid., pp. 98, 99.

541. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, II. 100-101.

542. Ibid., p. 105: "He Himself lived with His disciples in communityof goods."

543. Ibid, p. 101. This was one of the earliest heresies of theChristian era refuted by Origen: "Moreover, he [Celsus] frequently callsthe Christian doctrine a secret system, we must refute him on this point... to speak of the Christian doctrine as a secret system is altogetherabsurd."--Origen, Contra Celsum, in The Ante-Nicene ChristianLibrary, p. 403 (1869).

544. Ibid., p. 106.

545. Ibid., p. 113.

546. Ibid., p. 96.

547. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, II. 111.

548. Ibid., II. 123.

549. Ibid., II. 124.

550. Ibid., I. 68.

551. Ibid., II. 113.

552. Ibid., II. 115.

553. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, II. 13, 14.

554. Ibid., I. 104.

555. Ibid., I. 104-106.

556. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, I. 76.

557. Originalschriften, p. 8.

558. Ibid., p. 9.

559. Ibid., p. 10

560. Neuesten Arbeiten des Spartacus und Philo, pp. 143, 163.

561. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, I. 3.

562. Originalschriften, p. 215.

563. Ibid., p. 173.

564. Ibid., p. 175.

565. Ibid., pp. 237-8.

566. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, I. 12.

567. Originalschriften, p. 231.

568. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, II. 2.

569. Originalschriften, p. 51.

570. Ibid., p. 52.

571. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, II. 45.

572. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, II. 51.

573. Originalschriften, p. 210.

574. Ibid., p. 72.

575. Ibid., p. 271.

576. Ibid., p. 50.

577. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, I. 32.

578. Royal Masonic Cyclopædia, article on Illuminati.

579. Feder, a preacher at the Court who had joined the Illuminati.

580. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, I. 42.

581. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, I. 39, 40.

582. Ibid., I. 47.

583. Originalschriften, pp. 370, 371.

584. Ibid., pp. 257, 258.

585. Given in the cypher of the Illuminati: "Denken sie, meine 18. 10.5. 21. 12. 6. 8. 17. 4. 13. ist 18. 10. 5. 21. 12. 13. 6. 8. 17. (meineSchwägerin ist schwanger)." See cypher on p. 1 of Originalschnften.

586. Note, then, that this was no sudden lapse on the part ofWeishaupt.

587. Nachtrag von ... Onginalschrtften, I. 14-16.

588. Ibid., I. 21.

589. Ibid., I. 99.

590. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, I. 112.

591. Author of the very interesting work La Vérité sur les SociétésSecrétes en Allemagne, par un Ancien Illuminé (Paris, 1819).

592. De l'Influence attribuée aux Philosophes, aux Francs-Maçons etaux Illuminés sur la, Révolution de France, par J.J. Mounier (1822), p.181.

593. It has several times been stated that Weishaupt was himself a Jew.I cannot find the slightest evidence to this effect.

594. Originalschriften, pp. 107-10.

595. "Foresight indicates," says Falk, "that an end must be made to thewhole of the present scheme of Freemasonry [dem ganzen jetzigen Schemader Freimaurerei ein Ende zu machen]," and he goes on to show that thismust be done by picked men in the secret societies who know the truesecrets of Masonry. This is precisely Weishaupt's idea.

596. In 1779 Spartacus writes to Marius and Cato suggesting thatinstead of Illuminati the Order should be called the "Order of Bees[Bienenorden oder Bienengesellschaft]," and that all the statutes shouldbe clothed in this allegory--Originalschriften, p. 320.

597. Nachtrag von ... Originalschriften, II. 81.

598. My italics.

599. Where are they called this? The Cabala distinctly states thatIsrael alone is to possess the future world (Zohar, section Vayschlah,folio 177b), whilst the Talmud even excludes the lost tribes: "the tentribes have no share in the world to come" (Tract Sanhedrim, Rodkinson'stranslation, p. 363).

600. Memoirs of Moses Mendelssohn, by M. Samuels, pp. 56, 57 (1827).

601. Letter to the Jewish Chronicle, September 1, 1922, quotingHenrietta Herz.

602. Goethe was initiated into Freemasonry on St. John's Eve, 1780.The Royal Masonic Cyclopædia observes: "There exist two greatclassical Masonic writers, Lessing and Goethe." Dr. Stauffer, in NewEngland and the Bavarian Illuminati (p. 172), points out further thatGoethe's connexion with the Illuminati is fully established by bothEngel (Geschichte des Illuminatenordens, pp. 355 and following) and byLe Forestier (Les Illuminés de Baviére, pp. 396 and following). It ispossible that Faust may be the history of an initiation by adisillusioned Illuminatus.

603. Henri Martin, Histoire de France, Vol. XVI. p. 531.

604. Historie de la Monarchie prussienne, V. 73.

605. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Vol. XXVI. p. 98.

606. "Notes on the Rainsford Papers" in A.Q.C., Vol. XXVI. p. 111.

607. Morning Herald for November 2, 1786.

608. Eckert, La Franc-Maçonnerie dans sa véritable signification,Vol. II. p. 92.

609. Drei merkwürdige Aussagen, etc., evidence of Grünberger,Cosandey, and Renner (Munich, 1786); Grosse Absichten des Ordens derIlluminaten, etc., Ditto, with Utzschneider (Munich, 1786).

610. Gustave Bord, La Franc-Maçonnerie en France, etc., p. 351(1908). This Australian Count is referred to in the correspondence ofthe Illuminati more as an agent than as an adept. Thus Weishaupt writes:"I must attempt to cure him of theosophy and bring him round to ourviews" (Nachtrag von ... Originalschnften, I. 71); and Philo, beforethe Congress of Wilhelmsbad, observes: "Numenius is not yet of much use.I am only taking him up so as to stop his mouth at the Congress [um ihnauj dem Convente das Meul zu stopfen]; still, if he is well led we canmake something out of him." (ibid., p. 109).

611. Die Neuesten Arbeiten des Spartacus und Philo in demIlluminaten-Orden. p. viii (1794).

612. De Luchet, Essai sur la Secte des Illuminés, p. vii.

613. Crétineau Joly, L'Église Romaine en face de la Révolution, I. p.93.

614. In my World Revolution I accepted erroneously the opinion ofseveral well-known writers who attribute this pamphlet to Mirabeau. Thefact that it was printed at the end of Mirabeau's Histoire Secrète dela Cour de Berlin and that a further edition revised by Mirabeau waspublished in 1792 no doubt gave rise to this supposition. But apart fromthe fact that Mirabeau as an Illuminatus was unlikely himself todenounce the Order, the proof that he was not the author may be found atthe British Museum, where the copy of the 1792 edition bears on thetitle-page the words in ink "Donné par l'auteur," and Mirabeau died inthe spring of the preceding year.

615. British Museum press-mark F. 259 (14).

616. Oeuvres posthumes de Marmontel, IV. 77.

617. Lombard de Langres, Histoire des Jacobins, p. 31 (1820).

618. Deschamps, Les Sociétés Secrètes et la Société, II. 151, quotingdocument amongst the papers of Cardinal Bernis entitled: Discoursprononcé au comité de la Propagande par M. Duport, un de ses mémoires,le 21 mai 1790.

619. Galart de Montjoie, Histoire de Marie Antoinette de Lorraine, p.156 (1797).

620. Lombard de Langres, Histoire des Jacobins, p. 117 (1820).

621. Ibid., p. 236.

622. See Die Neuesten Arbeiten des Spartacus und Philo, p. 71, wherethe Illuminati are described as wearing "fliegende Haare und kleinevierekte rothe samtne Hute." An alternative theory is, however, that the"cap of liberty" was copied from that of the galley-slaves.

623. Histoire des Jacobins, p. 117.

624. A.E. Waite, The Mysteries of Magic, p. 215.

625. Moniteur, Vol. II., séance du 23 décembre, 1789.

626. Théophile Malvezin, Histoire des Juifs à Bordeaux, p. 262(1875).

627. Requête des six corps de marchands et négociants de Paris contrel'admission des Juifs in Archives Nationales, quoted by Henri Delassus,La Question Juive, p. 60 (1911).

628. Leon Kahn, Les Juifs de Paris pendant la Révolution (1898).

629. Ibid., p. 167. Cf. Arthur Chuquet, La Légion Germanique, p. 139(1904).

630. Archives Nationales, F*. 2486.

631. My French Revolution, p. 274.

632. Kahn, op. cit., pp. 140, 141, 170, 201, 241.

633. Nouvelle Adresse des Juifs à l'Assemblée Nationale, le 24décembre, 1789.

634. Moniteur, Vol. XVIII., séances of 21st and 22nd Brumaire, An 2(November, 1793).

635. Discours de morale, prononcé le 2ième décadi, 20 frimaire, l'an2ième de la république ... an temple de la Vérité, ci-devant l'églisedes bénédictins à Angely Boutonne ... fait par le citoyen AlexandreLambert, fils, juif et élevé dans les préjugés du culte judaïque(1794), British Museum press-mark F. 1058 (4).

636. Kahn, op. cit., p. 311.

637. Crimes de la Révolution, III. 44.

638. Archives Nationales, Pièce remise par le Cabinet de Vienne(1824), F* 7566.

639. Chevalier de Malet, Recherches politiques et historiques, p. 2(1817).

640. Eckert, La Franc-Maçonnerie dans sa véritable signification, II.125.

641. Mr. Lucien Wolf, "The Jewish Peril," article in the Spectatorfor June 12, 1920.

642. A.E. Waite, "Occult Freemasonry and the Jewish Peril," in TheOccult Review for September, 1920.

643. Deschamps, op. cit., II. 197, quoting Tableau historique de laMaçonnerie, p. 38.

644. Eques a Capite Galeato, pp. 362, 364, 366.

645. Ibid., p. 423.

646. The War of Anti-Christ with the Church and ChristianCivilization, p. 30 (1885).

647. G. Lenôtre, Le Dauphin (Eng. trans.), p. 307.

648. Archives Nationales, F* 6563.

649. Archives Nationales F* 6563 No. 2449, Série 2. No. 49.

650. Pièce remise par le Cabinet de Vienne, F* 7566.

651. Lettres d'un Voyageur à l'Abbé Barruel, p. 30 (1800).

652. World Revolution, pp. 86 and following, where extracts from thecorrespondence of the Alta Vendita (or Haute Vente Romaine) were given.This correspondence will be found in L'Église Romaine en face de laRévolution, by Crétineau Joly, who published it from the documentsseized by the Pontifical Government at the death of one of the members.The documents were communicated to Crétineau Joly by the Pope GrégoireXVI, and published with the approval of Pius IX. Their authenticity hasnever been questioned. They are still in the secret archives of theVatican, or at any rate were there at the beginning of the present year.

653 Jan Witt, dit Buloz, Les Sociétés Secrètes de France etd'ltalie, pp. 20, 21 (1830).

654. Ibid., p. 6.

655. Louis Blanc, Histoire de Dix Ans, I. 88, 89.

656. Deschamps, Les Sociétés Secrètes et la Société, II. 534, quotingthe Monde Maçonmque for July, 1867.

657. Correspondence de Michel Bakounine, published by MichaelDragomanov, pp. 73, 209 (1896).

658. A. E. Waite, The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry, Vol. I. p. ix.

659. The Real History of the Rosicrucians, p. 403.

660. Paul Nourrisson, Les Jacobins an Pouvoir, pp. 202, 215 (1904).

661. J.M. Ragon, Cours philosophique ... des Initiations, etc.,édition sacrée (5,842), p. 19.

662. Ibid., p. 38.

663. Copin Albancelli, Le Pouvoir occulte contre la France, p. 124(1908).

664. Ibid., p. 125.

665. Ragon, op. cit., p. 38, note 2.

666. Ibid., p. 39.

667. Ibid., p. 52.

668. Ibid., p. 53.

669. Clavel, Histoire pittoresque de la Franc-Maçonnerie, p. 21.

670. Ibid., p. 23.

671. In La République universelle, published in 1793.

672. Georges Goyau, L'Idée de Patrie et l'Humanitarisme, p. 242(1913), quoting speech of F. Troubat in 1886. A periodical called LesÉtats Unis de l'Europe was published by Ferdinand Buisson in 1868.Ibid., p. 113.

673. Copin Albancelli, Le Pouvoir occults contre la France, p. 89.

674. Gould, History of Freemasonry, III. 191, 192.

675. Ibid., III. 26.

676. Copin Albancelli, Le Pouvoir occulte contre la France, p. 97.

677. Ibid., p. 90.

678. Le Pouvoir occulte contre la France, pp. 274-7.

679. Ibid., pp. 284-6.

680. Le Pouvoir occulte contre la France, p. 44.

681. Ibid., p. 263.

682. Ibid., p. 294.

683. La Conjuration juive contre le Monde Chrétien (1909).

684. Morning Post for February 1 and February 26, 1923.

685. Copin Albancelli, Le Pouvoir occulte contre la France, p. 132.

686. Gautrelet, La Franc-Maçonnerie et la Révolution, p. 87 (1872).

687. Copin Albancelli, Le Pouvoir occulte contre la France, p. 85.

688. Louis Dasté, Marie Antinette et le Complot Maçonnique, pp. 49-51(1910).

689. Times for December 30, 1921; A Epoca, November 28, 1921.

690. These documents were published in a book entitled ASzabadkömivesseg Bünei by Adorjan Barcsay.

691. Two Centuries of Freemasonry, p. 79. Published by theInternational Bureau for Masonic Affairs, of Neuchatel, 1917.

692. Article on "The Popes and Freemasonry," by the Rev. HerbertThurston, S.J., in The Tablet for January 27, 1923.

693. Evening Standard, June 26, 1923.

694. Ragon, Cours des Initiations, p. 33.

695. Alliance de la Démocratic Socialiste, etc., publié par l'ordre duCongrès International de la Haye, p. 93 (1873).

696. Histoire des Clubs de Femmes, by the Baron Marc de Villiers, p.380.

697. René Guénon, Le Théosophisme, p. 245 (1921).

698. Guénon, op. cit., p. 248, quoting La Lumière Maçonnique,Nov.--Dec. 1912, p. 522.

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699. Alice Leighton Cleather, H. P. Blavatsky: her Life and Work forHumanity p. 17 (Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta, 1922).

700. René Guénon, op. cit., p. 17.

701. René Guénon, op. cit., p. 30.

702. Guénon, op cit., p. 193, quoting Le Lotus for December, 1887.

703. I refrain from giving the name of this book as the author has nowleft the Theosophical Society and may regret having written these words.

704. Adolphe Franck, La Kabbale, pp. ii-iv.

705. See ante, pp. 21, 66, 92.

706. Alice Leighton Cleather, A Great Betrayal, p. 13 (1922).

707. See on this subject the ravings contained in the book Christ andthe New Age (1922), edited by G. Leopold, under the auspices of "TheStar in the East."

708. Dudley Wright, Roman Catholicism and Freemasonry, p. 221 (1922).

709. In a few lodges the purely British ritual has been adopted underthe name of the Verulam working, whilst recently a third ritual has beenintroduced by "Bishop Wedgwood," which in the opinion of a high BritishMason "upsets the whole working of the Craft degrees and reduces it allto an absurdity."

710. Alice Leighton Cleather, H. P. Blavatsky: her Life and Work forHumanity, p. 24 (Thacker. Spink & Co., Calcutta, 1922).

711. Alice Leighton Cleather, H. P. Blavatsky: her Life and Work forHumanity, p. 24. (Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta, 1922).

712. Ibid., p. 14.

713. Ibid., pp. 20, 311.

714. Nos. of January 11 to March 22, 1923.

715. A. L. Cleather, H. P. Blavatsky' a Great Betrayal, p. 69 (Thacker,Spink & Co., Calcutta, 1922).

716. John Bull, June 7, 1919; The Patriot, February 15, 1923.

717. The War and the Builders of the Commonwealth, a lecture given atthe Queen's Hall by Annie Besant on October 5, 1919, pp. 15, 18 (printedby the Theosophical Publishing Co.).

718. Diary of the Theosophical Society for April-July, 1924, p. 43.

719. On June 26, 1923

720. The Theosophical Quarterly for October 1920, April 1921, andApril 1922 (published by the Theosophical Society, New York).

721. Syed Ameer Ali expresses the opinion that even to Eastern mindsesoteric speculation presents a danger: "Sufism in the Moslem world,like to its counterpart in Christendom, has, in its practical effect,been productive of many mischievous results. In perfectly well-attunedminds mysticism takes the form of a noble type of idealistic philosophy;but the generality of mankind are more likely to unhinge their brains bybusying themselves with the mysteries of the Divine Essence and ourrelations thereto. Every ignorant and idle specimen of humanity, who,despising real knowledge, abandoned the fields of true philosophy andbetook himself to the domains of mysticism, would thus set himself up asone of the Ahl-i-Ma 'rifat."--The Spirit of Islam, p. 477.

722. Confirmed by A.Q.C. 1. 54.

723. Guénon, op. cit., p. 296. It would appear to be this MS. or a copywhich was recently offered for sale by a Paris bookseller under thefollowing description: "Manuscrit de Kabbale.--Spedalieri (Baron de. LeSceau de Salomon). Traité sur les Séphiroth, en un in-f. de 16 pp....le baron Spedalieri fut le disciple le plus instruit et le plus intimed'Eliphas Lévi.--Son traté kabalistique 'Le Sceau de Salomon' est fondésur la tradition hébraïque et hindoue et nous révèle le sens occulte dugrand pantacle mystique. Dans une étude sur les séphiroth, Eliphas Léviannonçait que le temps venu il révèlerait à ses disciples ce grandmystère jusqu'ici caché.--Spedalieri entreprend cette révélation." LeBibliophile ès Sciences Psychiques, No. 16 (1922). Librairie EmileNourry, 62 ru des Ecoles, Paris, Ve.

724. See ante, p. 34.

725. Robert Kuentz, Le Dr Steiner et la Théosophie actuelle, seriesof articles in the review Le Feu for October, November and December1913 and reprinted in pamphlet form.

726. The year of the General Strike.

727. Letter from Meakin to Baron Walleen, a Dane and member of the S.M.

728. Bertrand Russell, The practice and Theory of Bolshevism, p. 65(1920).

729. Amongst ths "subsidiary activities" of the Theosophical Societymay be mentioned the Liberal Catholic Church, the Guild of the Citizensof Tomorrow, the Order of the Brothers of Service, the Golden Chain, theOrder of the Round Table, the Bureau of Social Reconstruction, theBraille League, the Theosophical Educational Trust, etc.

730. Le Pouvoir Occulte contre la France, p. 291.

731. "The struggle to instil into the masses the idea of the SovietState control, and accounting, that this idea may be realised and abreak be made with the accursed past, which accustomed the people tolook upon the work of getting food and clothing as a 'private' affairand on purchase and sale as something that 'concerns only myself'--thisis a most momentous struggle, of universal historical significance, astruggle for Socialist consciousness against bourgeois-anarchistic'freedom.'"--Lenin, The Soviets at Work, p. 22 (The SocialistInformation and Research Bureau, 196 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow, 1919).

732. Mr. Bernard Shaw on "Railway Strike Secrets," reported in MorningPost for December 3, 1919.

733. Mr. Bernard Shaw in the Labour Monthly for October 1921.

734. Report of interview with Maxim Gorky in Daily News for October3, 1921.

735. Opinion expressed to me in conversation with a Socialist. Cf. KeirHardie, "Communism, the final goal of Socialism" (Serfdom toSocialism, p. 36).

736. "By the decree of May 22 1922, the right of private ownership ofmeans of production and for production itself was re-established." Seearticle by Krassin on "The New Economic Policy of the Soviet Government"in Reconstruction (the monthly review edited by Parvus) for September1922.

737. See Guillaume's Documents de l'Internationale and Mrs. Snowden'sA Political Pilgrim in Europe.

738. Les Sociétés de Pensée et la Démocratie (1921). M. AugustinCochin collaborated with M. Charles Charpentier in throwing new light onthe French Revolution, and triumphantly refuted M. Aulard in 1908.Unhappily his work was cut short by the war and he was killed at thefront in July 1916, leaving his great history of the Revolutionunfinished.

739. Mr. Philip Snowden in debate on Socialism in the House of Commonson March 20, 1923: "By far the greatest time that man has been upon thisglobe he has lived not under a system of private enterprise, not undercapitalism, but under a system of tribal communism, and it is well worthwhile to remember that most of the great inventions that have been thebasis of our machinery and our modern discoveries were invented by menwho lived together in tribes."

740. The Red Catechism, by Tom Anderson, p. 3.

741. E.g. the following extract from an address by Miss Esther Brightto the Esoteric School of Theosophy quoted in The Patriot for March22, 1923: "The hearty and understanding co-operation between E.S.T.members of many nations will form a nucleus upon which the nations maybuild the big brotherhood which we hope may become the United States ofEurope. United States! What a fine sound it has when one looks at theEurope of to-day!" A review named Les États-Unis d'Europe existed asearly as 1868, and M. Goyau shows that this formula and also that of the"République Universelle" were slogans current amongst the pacifistsbefore and during the war of 1870 which they signally failed toavert.--L'Idée de Patrie et l'Humanitarisme, pp. 113, 115.

742. How bitterly this attitude is still resented by the Jews is shownin the article on Jesus in the Jewish Encyclopædia, which observesthat: "In almost all of his public utterances he was harsh, severe, anddistinctly unjust ... toward the ruling and well-to-do classes. Afterreading his diatribes against the Pharisees, the Scribes, and the rich,it is scarcely to be wondered at that these were concerned in helping tosilence him" (vol. vii, p. 164).

743. The execution of Monseigneur Butkievitch, the Roman CatholicArchbishop of Petrograd, was condoned by the Daily Herald, the NewStatesman, and the Nation. See the Daily Herald for April 7, 1923.

744. Letters from a friend of the present writer in Russia, dates ofAugust 1922 and February 1923.

745. Daily Herald for February 21, 1922.

746. Ibid., March 18, 1920.

747. See Report of Annual Conference of the Social DemocraticFederation in Morning Post for August 6, 1923, where it is said that"Whole-hearted denunciation of Sovietism was the chief feature of theday's discussion," etc.

748. Evening Standard for January 15, 1924.

749. Daily Telegraph for January 8, 1923; Daily Mail for January24, 1923.

750. Report of speech by Adeline, Duchess of Bedford, at a publicmeeting to protest against the treatment of political prisoners inPortugal, April 22, 1913, quoted in Portuguese Political Prisoners, p.89 (published by Upcott Gill & Son).

751. Evening Standard, May 14, 1923.

752. That this use of the cinema for revolutionary propaganda isdeliberate was proved to me by personal experience. A man who had beenstruck with the dramatic possibilities of something I had written wroteto ask if he might place it before a certain well-known film producer inAmerica. I gave my consent, and some time later he informed me that theproducer in question regretted he could not film my work as it mightappear to be anti-Bolshevist propaganda. Soon after this the sameproducer brought out a film on the same subject with the moral turnedround the other way, so as to make the whole thing subtly revolutionary,and brought this over to England, where he advertised it asanti-Bolshevist propaganda! This is typical of the duplicity displayedby these propagandists.

753. Quoted in Le Problème de la Mode, by the Baronne de Montenach,p. 30(1913).

754. Robison, Proofs of a Conspiracy, pp. 251, 252 (1798).

755. Article by A. Quiller in The Equinox for September 1910, p. 338.

756. New York Herald for September 6 and 7, 1921.

757. Private communication to the author.

758. Paul Bureau, La Crise morale des Temps nouveaux, p. 108 (1907).

759. Daily Mail, July 14, 1922.

760. Le Smorfie dell' Anima, by Mario Mariani (1919).

761. A leader writer in one of the most important literaryConstitutional journals in this country observed to me in conversationthat "all such nonsense as patriotism ought to be done away with";another writer for the same paper told me he would not in the leastregret to see the British Empire broken up.

762. Astolphe de Custine, La Russie en 1839, I. 149 (1843).

763. Essai sur la Secte des Illuminés (1792 edition), p. 48. On p. 46de Luchet expresses his idea in a curious passaqe which I find difficultto render in English: "Il s'est formé au sein des plus épaissesténèbres, une société d'êtres nouveaux qui se connaissent sans s'êtrevus, qui s'entendent sans s'être expliqués, qui se servent sans amitié.Cette société a le but de gouverner le monde...."

764. Ibid., p. 171.

765. Eckert, La Franc-Maçonnerie dans sa véritable signification,translated by the Abbé Gyr (1854), II. 133, 134.

766. My italics.

767. Galart de Montjoie, Histoire de Marie Antoinette, p. 156 (1797).

768. G. Lenôtre, The Dauphin, Eng. trans., p. 307.

769. Recherches politiques et historiques sur l'existence d'une secterévolutionnaire, p. 2 (1817).

770. J. Crétineau-Joly, L'Église Romaine en face de la Revolution,II. 143 (1859).

771. Lord George Bentinck, A Political Biography, pp. 552-4 (1852).

772. Les Sociétés Secrètes et la Société, I. 91

773. Ibid., II. 243.

774. Ibid., II. 521.

775. Robison's Proofs of a Conspiracy, p. 107.

776. A good account of this was contained in a letter to The Times ofJanuary 23, 1924.

777. The Prince, Eng. trans, by Henry Morley, p. 61.

778. Ibid., p. 110.

779. Ibid., p. 110.

780. Ibid., p. 131.

781. The Prince, Eng. trans, by Henry Morley, pp. 143, 144.

782. M. Mazères, De Machiavel et de l'influence de sa doctrine sur lesopinions, les mæurs et la politique de la France pendant la Rèvolution(1816).

783. Deschamps, Les Sociètès Secrètes, etc., I. p. xcii., quoting"Discours du F. Malapert a la Loge Alsace-Lorraine" in La Chainsd'Umon, pp. 88, 89 (1874); ct. Eckert, La Franc-Maçonnerie dans savéritable signification, II. 293.

784. Deschamps, op. cit., II. 681.

785. Politica Segreta Italiana, by Diamilla Muller, p. 346 (1891).

786. Copin Albancelli, Le Pouvotr occulte contre la France, p. 388.

787. Series of article entitled "Boche and Bolshevik" by Nesta H.Webster and Herr Kurt Kerlen, which appeared in the Morning Post forApril 26, 27, June 10, 11, 15, 16, 1922. Reprinted in book form by theBeckwith Company of New York.

788. Boche and Bolshevik, p 39.

789. The General Staff and its Problems, II. 556

790. One of the pamphlets emanating from the first of these lines andentitled "England's War Guilt" reached the present writer. Its purportis to show that "England alone was the chief agent of the war," and thatLord Haldane and Sir Edward Grey, by encouraging Germany to believe thatEngland would not intervene, led her into a trap.

791. Georges Goyau, L'Idée de Patrie et l'Humanitarisme, p. in(1913).

792. August 19, 1919.

793. My italics.

794. Daily Herald for January 26, 1923. So tender a regard did theDaily Herald entertain for the feelings of German magnates that itssusceptibilities were deeply shocked at the correspondent of anotherpaper, who, after lunching with Herr Thyssen, was so "ungentlemanly" asto comment afterwards on the display of wealth he had witnessed (DailyHerald for February 2, 1923). Yet the Daily Herald reporter had seennothing ungentlemanly in attending a garden party at Buckingham Palaceand publishing a sneering account of it afterwards under the heading of"Pomp and Farce in the Palace" (date of July 21, 1921).

795. Karl Marx in his Preamble of the Provisional Rules of theInternationale (1864).

796. The Times, June 30, 1922; the Morning Post, June 26 and 30,1922. A very curious and well-informed article, from which some of thesedetails are taken, appeared in the West Coast Leader, Lima, Peru, ofDecember 14, 1921.

797. Lettres inédites de Joseph de Maistre, p. 415 (1851).

798. Letter from the Rev. B. S. Lombard to Lord Curzon, March 23, 1919.

799. Jewish Guardian for January 18, 1924.

800. Jewish Encyclopædia, article on Zionism.

801. La République universelle, p. 186 note (1793).

802. Daily Mail, September 21, 1923.

803. Reported in the Jewish World, January 5, 1922.

804. Morning Post for August 1, 1921.

805. Michael Rodkinson (i.e. Rodkinssohn), in Preface to translation ofthe Talmud, Vol. I. p. x.

806. Drach, De l'Harmomie entre l'Église[C] et la Synagogue, I. 167,quoting the treatise Aboda-Zara, folio 13 verso, and folio 20 recto;also treatise Baba Kamma, folio 29 verso. Drach adds: "We could multiplythese quotations almost to infinity."

807. Zohar, section Toldoth Noah, folio 63b (de Pauly's trans., I373).

808. Zohar, section Toldoth Noah, folio 646 (de Pauly's trans., I.376).

809. J.P. Stehelin, The Traditions of the Jews, II. 215-20, quotingTalmud treatises Baba Bathra folio 74b, Pesachim folio 32, Bekhorothfolio 57, Massektoth Ta'anith folio 31. The Zohar also refers to thefemale Leviathan (section Bô, de Pauly's trans., III. 167). Drach showsthat amongst the delights promised by the Talmud after the return toPalestine will be the permission to eat pork and bacon.--De l'Harmonieentre l'Église et la Synagogue, I. 265, 276, quoting treatise Hullin,folio 17, 82.

810. Stehelin, op. cit., II. 221-4.

811. The Very Rev. Sir George Adam Smith, Syria and the Holy Land, p.49 (1918).

812. Zohar, section Schemoth, folio 7 and 9b; section Beschalah,folio 58b (de Pauly's trans., III. 32, 36, 41, 260).

813. Ibid., section Vayschlah, folio 177b (de Pauly's trans., II. p.298).

814. Hastings' Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, article on theKabbala by H. Loewe.

815. Eugène Tavernier, La Religion Nouvelle, p. 265 (1905).

816. Jewish Guardian for January 25, 1924.

817. Deuter. ix. 5.

818. Dan. ix. 11.

819. Neh. ix. 26.

820. Isa. i. 1-17. See also Ezek. xx. 13.

821. Jewish Guardian for October 1, 1920.

822. Josephus, The Jewish War (Eng. trans.), IV. 170, 334.

823. Ibid., V. 152.

824. See, for example, the descriptions of the horrible crueltypractised in the Jewish schools of Poland in the eighteenth century,given in The Autobiography of Solomon Maimon (Eng. trans., 1888), p.32.

825. Treatise Hullin, folio 27a.

826. Talmud, treatise Sanhedrim (Rodkinson's trans, p. 156).

827. Encyclopædia Britannica (1911 edition), article on LordBeaconsfield.

828. Drach, De l'Harmonie entre l'Église et la Synagogue, II. 336.This custom is still in force; see the very legitimate complaint of aJewess in the Jewish World for December 21, 1923, that women are stillrelegated to the gallery "to be hidden behind the grille, whence theymay hear their menfolk bless the Almighty in strident tones that 'Thouhast not made me a woman.'"

829. Drach, op. cit., II. 335, 336, quoting Talmud, treatise Meghillafolio 23 verso, treatise Berachoth folio 21 verso, treatise Sanhedrimfolio 2 recto, Maimonides chap. viii. art 6; Schulchan Arukh, etc.

830. In this connexion see article on "Jesus" in the JewishEncyclopædia, where the reader is referred to the work of O. Holtzmann(War Jesus Ekstattker?), who "agrees that there must have beenabnormal mental processes involved in the utterances and behaviour ofJesus."

831. Jewish World for December 22. 1920.

832. Exod. i 10.

833. Sura v. 60 (Everyman's Library edition, p. 493).

834. Reinhardt Dozy, Spanish Islam (Eng. trans.), p. 651.

835. J. Denais-Darnays, Les Juifs en France, p. 17 (1907).

836. On the question of the Protocols, see Appendix II.

837. "Jews have been most conspicuous in connexion with Freemasonry inFrance since the Revolution."--Jewish Encyclopædia, article onFreemasonry.

838. A.E. Waite, The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry, II. 115.

839. It is significant to notice that in the second and abridgededition of the white Paper issued by the Foreign Office these two mostimportant passages marked with an asterisk were omitted and the firstedition was said to be unobtainable.

840. On this point see also a very interesting pamphlet From Behindthe Vail, published by Victor Hornyanszky (Budapest, 1920), also MadameCécile Tormay, The Diary of an Outlaw (1923).

841. Revolutionary Radicalism, its History, Purpose, and Tactics, withan Exposition and Discussion of the Steps being taken and required tocurb it, being the Report of the Joint Legislative Committeeinvestigating Seditious Activities, filed April 24, 1920. in theSenate of the State of New York (Albany, J.B. Lyon Company, Printers,1920).

842. Revolutionary Radicalism, Vol. I. p. 374.

843. Ibid., p. 24.

844. Among those who prominently showed their profound grief at thedeath of Lenin were Jews, and not merely Jews by origin but conformingJews. Children from Jewish schools, we learn, joined in the procession,while the Hebrew Art Theatre (Habima) sent a banner with the inscriptionin Hebrew: "You freed the nations; you will be remembered for ever.' Inaddition Rabbi Jacob Mase, of Moscow, the Jewish Relief Committee ofthat city and other Jewish bodies, sent telegrams of condolence; whilethe Association of Jewish Authors issued a special memorial magazine inYiddish dedicated to the memory of Lenin."--Jewish World for January21, 1924.

845. Patriot, for April 26, 1923.

846. Ibid., May 3, 1923.

847. Jewish World for January 10, 1924.

848. Quoted in the Jewish World for January 10, 1924,

849. Jewish World for November 9, 1922.

850. Le Probléme Juif. pp. 41, 43.

851. Lenin, The Soviets at Work, p. 18.

852. I do not here ignore the work of the Trade Unions; but the TradeUnions would have been powerless to better conditions without thesupport of upper and middle-class men in Parliament.

853. Private communication to author.

854. See ante, p. 343.

855. Madame Cécile Tormay, in her description of the Jewish Bolshevistrégime in Hungary, eloquently observes: "It is said that only amisguided fraction of the Jews is active in the destruction of Hungary.If that be so, why do not the Jews who represent Jewry in London, in NewYork, and at the Paris Peace Conference disown and brand their tyrantco-religionists in Hungary? Why do they not repudiate all community withthem? Why do they not protest against the assaults committed by men oftheir race?" (An Outlaw's Diary, p. 110, 1923).

856. For example, when religious persecution in Russia was said to haveturned against the Jews in the spring of 1923.

857. Jewish Intelligence, and Monthly Account of the Proceedings ofthe London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews, April1846, pp. 111, 112: Letter from the Rev. B.W. Wright.

858. Gustave Le Bon goes so far as to say that "the Jews have neverpossessed either arts, sciences, or industries, or anything thatconstitutes a civilization.... At the time of their greatest power underthe reign of Solomon it was from abroad that they were obliged to bringthe architects, workmen, and artists, of which no rival then existed inIsrael."--Les Premières Civilisations, p. 613 (1889). It should beremembered, however, that Hiram, the master-builder, was half, if notwholly, an Israelite.

859. Jewish Encyclopedia, article on Nervous Diseases.

860. Jewish World for November 9, 1922.

861. H.M. Hyndman, "The Dawn of a Revolutionary Epoch," in TheNineteenth Century for January 1881.

862. A committee has recently been formed by the Jewish Board ofGuardians to sit on all "anti-Semitic" movements in this country. At ameeting of this body it was complacently announced that "the Committeehad obtained the removal of the posters of an anti-Semitic paper fromthe walls of an important establishment, and steps had been taken to getothers removed."--Jewish Guardian, February 22, 1924. We wonderwhether the Welsh would be able to obtain the removal of postersadvertising literature of an anti-Celtic nature. This comes perilouslynear to a fulfilment of the Protocols.

863. Drach, De l'Harmonie entre l'Église et la Synagogue. I. 79(1844). It is curious to notice that the Jewish writer Margoliouth makesuse of the same expression where he says, "It was well remarked that thehouse [of Rothschild] 'was spread like a network over thenations.'"--History of the Jews in Great Britain, II. 161 (1851).

864. Eng. trans., Vol. III. p. 591 ff.

865. Confirmed by Werner Sombart, The Jews and Modern Capitalism(Eng. trans.), p. 203: "The Talmud says: 'Kill even the best of theGentiles.'" The Zohar also says: "Tradition tells us that the best ofthe Gentiles deserves death."--Section Vaïqra, folio 14b (de Pauly'strans., Vol. V. p. 42).

866. Professor H. Graetz, The History of the Jews (Eng. trans.), III.591-6.

867. See my World Revolution, pp. 296-307. The misapprehensionreferred to above may have arisen from the resemblance between the titleof my book and the series of articles which appeared in the MorningPost under the name of The Cause of World Unrest. In view of the factthat these articles were on some points at variance with my owntheories, it seems hardly necessary to state that they were not my work.As a matter of fact, I did not know of their existence until they werein print, and later I contributed four supplementary articles signed bymy name.

868. Spectator for June 12, 1920.

869. James Guillaume, Documents de l'Internationale, I. 131.

870. Correspondance de Bakounine, published by Michael Dragomanov, p.325.

871. Le Juif, etc., pp. 367, 368.

872. Revolution and War or Britain's Peril and her Secret Foes, byVigilant (1913). A great portion of this book exposing the subtlepropaganda of Socialism and Pacifism is admirable; it is only where theauthor attempts to lay all this to the charge of the Jesuits that heentirely fails to substantiate his case.


(Video) Webster! Full Episode September 9, 1986


1. The Bolshevik View of World Revolution
(Russel Tarr)
2. "The Secret Doctrine of the Jews": Jewish Theosophists and Kabbalah - Boaz Huss
(Ben-Gurion University | אוניברסיטת בן-גוריון בנגב)
3. Secret Societies and Subversive Movements By Nesta H. Webster, PT. 1
(Lone wolf imaging)
(illuminati Watcher)
5. Secret Societies and Subversive Movements By Nesta H. Webster, PT. 2
(Lone wolf imaging)
6. Ian Webster - Mining in Space
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